Biofeedback Mastery

Biofeedback Mastery

Have you ever wondered what Biofeedback is all about? Uncover these unique information on Biofeedback! Are you in constant pain? Do you wish you could ever just find some relief? If so, you are not alone. Relieving chronic pain can be difficult and frustrating.

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I am often asked how all this relates to biofeedback. I explain that this term technically describes using meters and other instruments to tell you what is happening in your body. The neat thing about these devices is that they respond instantly to changes in skin temperature, electrical resistance, muscle tension, or some other indicator of your body's state, letting you know if what you are doing has the desired effect as you are doing it. This can be very helpful in mastering psychosomatic self-control skills. For a small percentage of cases, this mechanical feedback is the only way to learn these skills. However, being hooked up to biofeedback apparatus does not significantly change what you have to do. You will still work in the same way. If you have access to quality biofeedback equipment, by all means learn how to use it this equipment can make it quite a bit easier to master the art of psychosomatic self-control. It's not, though, anything you can't do as well without. The...

Biofeedback Programs

ABC BIOFEEDBACK CORP. 60 Sutton P1. so New York, N.Y. (212) 371-3174 ASSOCIATED BIOFEEDBACK MEDICAL GROUP 71-36 110 Street Forest Hills, N.Y. (212) 263-3535 BIOFEEDBACK CONSULTATION SERVICE 310 Madison Ave. New York, N.Y. (212) 687-0180 BIOFEEDBACK BY CRANE CORP 257 Hunterbrook Road, Yorktown Heights, N.Y. (914) 962-4644 BIOFEEDBACK STUDY CENTER OF N.Y. CENTER FOR BIOFEEDBACK APPLICATION INC. 277 Mest End Ave. New York, N.Y. (212) 787-8270 BIOFEEDBACK SOCIETY OF N.Y. 115 East B7 Street New York, N.Y. 10028 BIOFEEDBACK INSTRUMENTS 255 West 98 Street New York, K.Y. 10027 (212) 222-5665 BIOFEEDBACK SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY 2. If your doctor cannot recommend you a meditation S relaxation teacher, you can probably find one by looking up the Yellow Pages of your local telephone directory under meditation, yoga or biofeedback. The National Directory in this book, or one of the new age magazines, such as New Age, Yoga Journal, etc. can probably supply you with some names and addresses. Go and...

You can easily forget that dream when you awaken

Such ideomotor and ideosensory processes were early recognized as the basis of many hypnotic phenomena (Bernheim, 1895), and they can be easily measured today with psychophysiological instruments. Many forms of biofeedback (Brown, 1974), for example, can be understood as ideosensory and ideomotor responses that are amplified and reinforced by electronic instrumentation. More cognitive processes like dreaming and forgetting can be facilitated when suggested by truisms that the average subject usually cannot deny, as in examples 3 and 4. This, then, is a basic mechanism of hypnotic suggestion we offer simple truths that automatically evoke conditioned associations in a particularly vivid way. Suggestion is a process of evoking and utilizing potentials and life experiences that are already present in subjects but perhaps outside their usual range of control. Therapeutic suggestion helps patients gain access to their own associations and abilities to solve their own problem.

Mind and Body in medicine

And some phenomena can be reliably reproduced in good subjects which are medically considered very unusual and hard to explain (though not neccessarily limited to hypnosis situations). The working medical framework hat had traditionally cleanly separated psychogenic from physiological ffects has been revised in parts to allow for some of the mechanisms related to effects found in good hypnotic subjects such as influences between neural nd immunological systems, dermatological (skin) responses that were previously believed not to be able to be influenced by the brain and nervous system, and the difficult but demonstrable 'biofeedback' ability to indirectly ontrol very small neural units previously considered completely autonomic.

The Danger Of Hypnotic Programming

In their book BENYOND BIOFEEDBACK published by Dell Book, Doctors Elmer & Alyce Green cautoined against the popular commercial mindtraining programs. The Doctor Greens specifically cautioned against those who use hypnosis but advertise to the contrary, thereby denying and ignoring the risks associated with hypnotic programming. The Doctor Greens also cautined against the premature development of Extra Sensory Powers giving tise to psychic hazards. Independence in the field of mind was stressed. The Doctors stressed that when psychic subission overshadows self-volition, the result is disastrousc --- the power of psyphic self-determination is needed for safety. The Doctors apporves of psychosomatic self-regulation achieved by any volitional method --- self-mastery is a slower process, but much safer than submitting oneself to hypnotic instruction and turning the control of one's

Self Directing the Brain toward Relaxation and Arousal

After passing through an initial stage of calming, they often move toward stages broadly categorized as either receptive or concen-trative meditation (see chapter 13). Recent fMRI studies have monitored the ways the brain directs itself'' as it participates in somewhat similar intentionally organized stages. However, in these studies, biofeedback techniques were used to induce either one of two goals a state of relaxation or more intensified levels of arousal.28

Additional Notes on use of the Pendulum

The pendulum is a biofeedback device. It works through the integration of Conscious and Unconscious processes. This means the client needs to see the pendulum and its signals. Their consciousness of the movements of the pendulum sets the stage for their Unconscious Mind to communicate through this medium. If the client is still concerned, as you are asking a question, block their view with a piece of paper. This means actually holding a piece of paper between the client's face and the pendulum. The moment the client begins to answer, pull the piece of paper away, so they can see the swing of the pendulum. This will maintain the biofeedback nature of the process.

Decrease the muscle tension in your forehead

Consciousness is given a signal enabling it to recognize when any behavior changes are being made in the desired direction of response. In biofeedback this is accomplished by an electronic transducer that measures the response (blood pressure, body temperature, alpha waves, or muscle tension in the above examples) and makes any change in this response evident on a meter that allows the subjects to monitor their own behavior. The advantages of the implied directive over biofeedback are obvious. The latter is a fairly cumbersome technique that requires sophisticated and expensive electronic equipment. It is limited to those responses that can actually be measured. By contrast, the implied directive requires no equipment and is limited only by the ingenuity and imagination of both therapist and patient. Although no comparative studies have been made as yet, one might expect that the electronic equipment of biofeedback might ensure a greater reliability of control than is possible with...

You will find yourself awakening feeling refreshed and alert

The implied directive is particularly interesting because of its similarity to the technique of biofeedback. In most forms of biofeedback an electronic device is used to signal when an internal response has been accomplished. With the implied directive the patient's own overt and autonomous behavioral response is used to signal when the internal response has been accomplished. The formal similarities between them may be listed as follows

Voluntary vs Involuntary

Who or what is in control when a hypnotist gives a suggestion, and their ubject apparently responds, but reports that they had no awareness of responding Is it the same mechanism in some ways as that in control during biofeedback experiments when the subject has no direct awareness of altering markers of their physiological functions Or is it closer to the mechanism that permits the well known 'automatisms' or behaviors performed by habitoutside our awareness Or are these all aspects of the the same mechanism insome way

Experiment IWenty Warming Yourself

If you had a difficult time with the hand-warming visualization, work with a basin of hot water beside you in your next session as you imagine the hand becoming warmer, dip it into this hot water and focus on feeling it actually becoming warmer. If you have access to biofeedback apparatus equipped to respond to warmth, that would also be a great aid. If you had no problems with your visualization, these supplementary measures are entirely optional.

The Wide Variety of Cingulate Gyrus Functions

The effects of relaxation were monitored in another imaging study. It asked the question What are the fMRI correlates of biofeedback-induced relaxation The study also assessed the degree of sympathetic nervous system relaxation with the aid of skin conductance measurements. One answer was that the relaxation induced by biofeedback was associated with significant increases in signals both in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and in the globus pallidus.7

Warming Yourself By Suggestion

For example, picture yourself soaking up heat in a warm bath or hot tub. or warming your hands by an open fire imagine the sun warming your body. To facilitate response, you may use biofeedback equipment and or other mechanical aids such as dipping your hand in warm or hot water while imagining that it is becoming warm. This trick does not have to be limited to your initial training period use it whenever it can help.

Staying Current for my Clients

I also discovered that a biofeedback study (which is simple relaxation and manipulation of visualized images to reduce stress) again proved that most people can control their emotional response to tinnitus with proper practitioner guidance. Biofeedback became popularized over 25 years ago when it was deemed useful to measure the client response to altered states of consciousness. It was discovered that most people can reduce their stress level through electronic monitoring. Biofeedback is generally considered to be a useful sub-field of hypnotherapy and it is always encouraging to see positive results for tinnitus sufferers that are taught biofeedback mo nitored relaxation techniques.(16) 3. Pamelor-In a personal conversation with Dr. Mark Sullivan, my understanding was that he was currently working with nortriptyline with tinnitus sufferers and was experiencing a fair degree of success. Further, in the biofeedback study, cited in number 16 below, it was found that 27 of patients...

Outline Of Hypnotic Strategies And Techniques For Managing Pain

Very importantly, as clinicians treating pain we must assume a realistic posture concerning the role of hypnosis. Hypnosis is like any other medical or psychological technique it is not effective with every patient. Some patients obtain tremendous pain relief with hypnosis others find it clearly helpful but are in need of still other methods of relief some find that it reduces the affective components of pain (Price & Barber, 1987), making the sensory pain more tolerable and some patients receive no benefit from hypnosis. Consequently we must also be familiar with nonhypnotic treatment options such as medications, nerve blocks and trigger point injections, physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and biofeedback. When it comes to the treatment of pain, the hypnotherapist should not work in a vacuum. A multidisciplinary team is ideal, and interdisciplinary cooperation is vitally important.

How can you enter the alpha state

We could say that inducing the alpha state is like opening a door and entering the realm of the subconscious. We should also mention that biofeedback devices are much less harmful than other, more controversial methods of alpha induction. As Dr. Brown states, substances like marijuana, LSD, heroine, alcohol and other drugs can also be used to increase alpha activity.

Is The Pain In The Main Plainly In The Brain

Effectively managing TMD requires a two-pronged approach of physically eliminating the noxious dental stimulus and mentally relaxing the muscles of mastication and muscles of facial expression. The use of medication and massage of sore muscles may expedite the healing process. Treatment of the physical etiology may be as simple as polishing fillings that have expanded with the course of time. Other treatment options may range from wearing a specially designed 'bite guard' appliance during sleep (or when stress is experienced during the day), to comprehensive orthodontic treatment and full mouth reconstruction with dental implants, crowns and bridges. But it may be impossible to determine the proper bite relation as long as the supporting muscles are in the clenched or braced posture. Resolution of the disorder requires a coordinated effort. The patient needs to learn how to relax the muscle of mastication and the dentist needs to adjust the bite for optimal comfort. Learning how to...

Caycedos Dynamic Relaxation

American therapists were working along the same lines when they developed an electronic biofeedback device electrodes attached to a patient's body were used in place of proprioceptors, allowing researchers to detect physiological sensations that could then be transformed into auditory of visual signals.

The Scientific Mongraphs

Biofeedback and Self-Control (Aldine Publishing Company), an annual on the regulation of bodily processes and consciousness also has numerous reports on the beneficial effects of biofeedback, relaxation and meditation n hypertension, abnormal heart rate, headaches, chronic pain, asthma, insomnia, epileptic seizures, stroke patients, eating disorders and peripheral blood circulation. This annual is of a highly technical nature, consisting entirely of scientific papers. The Reports will bring you excerpts in layman languge in future volumes.

The Meditation Relaxation Case Reports Project

Meditation and relaxation has been Known to benefit the general health and relieve the sicknesses of innumerable number of persons since thousands of years of human history. In recent years, thanks to Doctors Benson, Wallace, Elmer s Alyce Green and numerous other scientific and clinical researchers, the beneficial effects of meditation, relaxation and biofeedback have l been well documented and the side effects delineated. Yet, meditation and relaxation is not as widely utilized as it should.The National Clearinghouse plans to submit to the appropriate authorities (for example, the State Legislature, the A.M.A., and the Congress)an ongoing series of Meditation and Relaxation Case Reports, consisting entirely of articles written by people who have benefited from the practice of meditation and relaxation. We also want to present every possible side effect and complicating circumstances associated with meditation, relaxation, biofeedback, and related therapies. Please help to make...

The Beneficial Effects Of Biogenics

Transcendental Meditation, Biofeedback, Autogenic Training, Hypnosis and Progressive Muscular Relaxation. Progressive Muscular Relaxation advocated by Edmond Jacobson M.D. had achieved excellent clinical results in treating cardiac neurosis, sleep disorders, hypochondria, chronic tiredness and anxiety neurosis etc. . Autogenic Therapy introduced by the German Physician J.H. Schultz had great successes with common psychosomatic disturbances like insomnia, neuraesthenia, constipation, stomach ulver, headache, nuscular tension and irritable bowel syndrome on the other hand psychosis, depression, schizophrenia and epilepsy had responded well only when there is concurrent tight psychiatric supervision. Biofeeback has helped many people to loosen up, to reduce their worries, anxiety or frustration, and has provided them an alternative to alcohol or tranquilizers. Biofeedback has no khown adverse side effects while all drugs potentially have some. Finally, Dr. Shealy introduced his own...

How We Assist The Busy Doctor

(1) We explain to the patients what is ralaxation and meditation, what can they expect from relaxation & meditation and what they shouldn't expect from meditation, relaxation & biofeedback. (5) We give them a list of meditation, relaxation & biofeedback programs available, help them pick a teacher and continue to monitor their progress regularly. We help them and protect them continuosly while they voluntarily remain under our care.

Definition And Theoretical Understanding

There are many roads available to the thoughtful child health clinician to guide a child toward these states of focused concentration whether toward solving a problem, controlling discomfort, easing or eliminating anxiety, alleviating a habit, or modulating disease processes, paths available are limited only by the creativity and therapeutic relationship of the clinician and the child Induction techniques and strategies to begin hypnosis are myriad, including virtually limitless iterations of relaxation and mental imagery (RMI), biofeedback, art therapy, music and movement therapy (Olness & Kohen, 1996).

The EEG in Meditation

During her everyday prayer practice increased her EEG frequency the most. Another subject, who had engaged in Sufi meditation for eighteen years, also experienced a free flow of tears during meditation. At this time the alpha frequency increased from 11 to 12 cps. Such observations suggest that emotional arousal can generate faster alpha frequencies. Alpha feedback techniques were used during a sixteen-day meditative retreat, and they did increase the amount of alpha rhythms. However, biofeedback did not make it any more likely for kensho to occur.9

Q Can you tell me what things in life give you greatest satisfaction pleasure happiness

In these different cases we might well be able to use some aspect of the desired result as a reinforcer of a useful change. In the first example we might institute the habit of window shopping for an ideal wardrobe, with an eye to looking for items which can be bought and worn at steps along the way to the ideal weight. In some cases it is then hardly necessary to specify exactly the changes in lifestyle which are necessary to achieve the change, any more than it is necessary in biofeedback training to specify how the blood pressure etc. is to be controlled. The feedback in either case can be enough to reinforce any improvement, provided it is quick and clear enough. In the present case every small reduction in weight leads to the reinforcer of a new article of clothing, which leads to continuing the actions which led to the weight loss, which leads to more clothes, and so on.

Biobehavioral Disorders

Children with asthma easily learn to use self-hypnosis and biofeedback to modulate acute episodes of wheezing (Kohen, 1986 Kotses et al., 1991 Kohen & Wynne, 1997 Kohen, 1995b). Children with asthma who learn self-hypnosis experience fewer Emergency Room visits, fewer missed school days, and a better sense of control (Kohen, 1995b). Young people with juvenile migraine who learn RMI are more effective in reducing the intensity, frequency, and duration of their migraine headaches than control patients or patients taking propranolol (Olness, MacDonald & Uden, 1987).

Historical Perspectives

Hypnotherapeutic methods with and without other self-regulation training (e.g., biofeedback) (Culbert, Reaney & Kohen, 1994) offer child health professionals opportunities to facilitate the development of competency and a sense of personal mastery in the children with whom they work. Successful applications of self-regulation include a focus on personal control and decision-making by the child, and specific attention to the child's preferences in using personal imagery skills. Ongoing research examining the characteristics of children's imagery (Kosslyn, Margolis, Barrett, Goldknopf & Daly, 1990) will hopefully provide clinicians more precise guidelines in selecting individual hypnotherapeutic approaches for a given child.

Mental Dynamics In Search of a Unified Theory

Although psychocybernetic techniques are usually practiced in a state of ordinary relaxation, I was convinced that the same techniques could be doubly effective if applied to persons in an altered state of consciousness. For that reason I became interested in self-hypnosis, biofeedback and sophrology. It was while attending a seminar based on Silva's Mind Control technique

The Management Of Chronic Stress

Longer term it is desirable that the patient can manage the exaggerated phasic and tonic arousal via other strategies such as relaxation, meditation, self-hypnosis, biofeedback or exercise programmes. Relaxation meditation techniques if practised regularly have been shown to progressively lower the basal physiological arousal. There are many different approaches to meditation and relaxation (Jacob-son, 1929 Benson, 1975), but they essentially involve similar principles. The patient needs to be motivated to persist as it is the alteration of a habitual basal or

The Place Of Meditation In Medical Care

Going over all the scientific papers and books written by the medical doctors and Ph.D.s on meditatin, relaxation, biofeedback, stress management and related therapies, on can safely conclude that meditation and relaxation has a place in maintaining the physical and mental helth of selected patients. Meditation and relaxation does not work on specfic diseases. It works by enhancing the general health of the patient. When the general health is improved, conventional medications and surgery works better and heals the disease faster and more effectively. The quality of life of many chronically sick patients can be improved also.

Alpha Rhythms

Given the above complexities, we can appreciate Brown's caveat that it is perilous to conclude anything about alpha.1 Still, the standard biofeedback techniques have long been used to train people to relax. And these methods have usually been directed toward enhancing their alpha rhythms and reducing their beta rhythms. When patients who are severely and chronically anxious do learn to facilitate their alpha rhythms, they gain a global feeling of increased well-being. Their alpha increases even before their inner feelings show marked improvement. However, the symptoms stay relatively unchanged in that other group of patients who cannot learn to increase their alpha.10 Pertinent to our understanding of zazen are three simple biofeedback techniques which help subjects develop more alpha (1) The subject's eyes remain open. This technique engages relaxation skills which can be more easily transferred to the stressful situations in ordinary daily life. (2) A light is used as a feedback...


It should not be surprising that researchers became interested in alpha waves, as a possible way of teaching people how to relax. Various approaches and devices were tried, including biofeedback machines, techniques based on existing relaxation and meditation methods, drugs, etc. Of course the idea has led to some exploitation, especially in the United States, where all kinds of biofeedback and alpha-wave-generating devices have begun popping up in local pharmacies. But that does not mean the whole alpha wave theory should be thrown out the window. Professor Gastaut may remember how opposed people were to the idea of blood transfusions, when doctors first started performing them back in the 1920's.

Ego State Therapy

Ego State Therapy has become a frequent focus in the hypnosis literature (Watkins, 1984 Watkins & Watkins, 1981, 1982 Edelstein, 1982 Beahrs, 1982 Newey, 1986). Ego State Therapy is defined by Watkins and Watkins (1982) as the 'utilization of family and group treatment techniques for the resolution of conflicts between the different ego states which constitute a ''family of self'' within a single individual.' This method is aimed at conflict resolution and may employ any of the directive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, supportive, existential, and even relaxation and biofeedback techniques of therapy. This method of therapy concerns a notion of how much the individual's behavior is the result of dissociated ego states in a state of conflict. According to Helen and John Watkins, the experience with ego state therapy shows that activating, studying and communicating with various ego states decreases the patient's tendency to dissociate. The patient who used to dissociate and experienced...

Hypnotherapy works

During 1995, my work with clients from all over the country was in full stride. The phone calls, faxes and e-mails never stopped, and don't to this day and now the research that has been released in these last two years has validated my earlier speculations about tinnitus. In fact the important papers released in 1995 and 1996 are among the most important ever. They essentially prove that hypnosis and other cognitive therapies like biofeedback are the most likely road to success for most individuals with tinnitus. (The caveat being that hypnotherapy and biofeedback are practitioner dependent for success, and that drugs are not. You MUST have a qualified hypnotherapist and not someone who has little or no understanding of tinnitus.)

Suggestibility tests

Whenever your mind focuses exclusively on a single thought or idea, your body responds. Dr Hyppolyte Bernheim called this an ideomotor response . The pendulum is a biofeedback device that augments such unconscious micromuscular responses to make them easily visible. Say to the subject

Framing Strategies

Benson and many other authorities that you practice entering and experiencing a relaxation response at least daily, for fifteen minutes or more. You can do this by meditation, biofeedback, or self-hypnosis. The name changes the miracle is the same.

Nationwide Programs

The Doctor Greens have a referral list covering all the states names of physicians, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists who have attended the biofeedback seminar and workshop at Menninger Foundation and who are qualified to counsel patients on meditation, relaxation and biofeedback.

Free Listing

The mission of the National Clearinghouse for Meditation Relaxation and Related Therapies is to bring to the attention of the lay public and health professionals the important role of meditation and relaxation in health maintenance and the treatment of diseases. We are therefore most happy to list any and all meditation, relaxation, stress management and biofeedback programs that are


In the Republic of China and Mainland China, various forms of meditation and relaxation including Tai Chi, sometimes in the Western world known as Shadow Boxing, or a special kind of Kung Fu (martial arts), have been increasingly popular during the past three decades. Today, with the rapid improvement of communications, peoples of the world have daily grown closer. The arts of Tai Chi , Kung Fu and Chi Kung (meditation and relaxation), gradually are attracting the attention of Europeans and Americans. Xn recent years, doctors, such as Herbert Benson, Wallace, Elmer and Alyce Green, and other scientific as well as clinical researchers have pointed out the beneficial effects of medication and relaxation, and biofeedback, with researched documentary support. One particular instance, James May, the first known non-Chinese student ever written up, gave his personal testimony in 1978, on how he had learned Chi I Kung (Chinese meditation energy). In 1973 he began to learn Taoist neditation....

The Power Within

In their book BEYOND BIOFEEDBACK published by Dell Books, Doctors Elmer & Alyce Green of the Meninger Foundation, discussed one or two representative examples of research and clinical work in each of the major areas of biofeedback with enough depth so that the reader could get a good idea of the procedures followed and results obtained. These areas included Heart Behavior, Blood Pressure, Migraine Headache, Gastrointestinal Disorders, Asthma, Neuromuscular Disorders, Tension Headache, Anxiety tension States, Epilepsy and Cerebral palsy. Concluding their discussions on the applications of biofeedback, the Doctor Greens reported that their colleagues made half-joking remarks that researchers in biofeedback sound like snake-oil salesmen, using biofeedback as a panacea. The Doctor Greens then suddenly realized that it isn't biofeedback that is the Panacea ---- it is the power within the human being to self-regulate, self-heel, and re-balance. The Doctor Greens concluded that biofeedback...

By Todd I Stark

Psychosomatics, Mind-Body effects, Biofeedback, Misc. Physiological Effects in Altered States. (19 entries) 8. Psychosomatics, Mind-Body effects, Biofeedback, Misc. Physiological Effects in Altered States, physiological correlates of hypnotic effects. 13. Holroyd JC. Nuechterlein KH. Shapiro D. Ward F. Individual differencesin hypnotizability and effectiveness of hypnosis or biofeedback. InternationalJournal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 30(1) 45-65, 1982 Jan. 10. Corcoran JF. Lewis MD. Garver RB. Biofeedback-

Telepathic Training

Another aspect of the method is to become conscious of the organic sensations that accompany the process of image creation, after subjects are able to maintain their images more or less at will (this part of the technique closely resembles the biofeedback and dynamic relaxation techniques described earlier).


This may be accomplished easily by discussing the everyday phenomena of physiologic responses to stressful events. One easily understood example is that of blushing with embarrassment. The clinician can explain that one first experiences something, followed by a feeling reaction of embarrassment, followed often 'instantaneously' by a physical response of blushing which in itself may be embarrassing. When the clinician asks the child if they stay blushed, they usually comment that they can and do act in some way to relieve the feeling of embarrassment, thus curtailing the blushing episode. This brief conversation can provide an everyday example of how a shift in the way a child feels can provide a shift in the physical response (of blushing) without even thinking about it. Graphic representative of changes in autonomic responsivity in response to feeling or 'thinking' changes can be even more dramatically demonstrated to children through computerized biofeedback reflection of EMG...

Indirect Questions

The value of noting emotional reactions is vouched for by those practitioners who make use of an electronic amplifier of emotion. It is a fact that emotional arousal tends to produce a small increase in the production of the sweat glands. If the arousal is intense then the sweat may actually be seen, but for more moderate arousals it is only enough slightly to moisten the skin with salty water. Since this conducts electricity quite well its presence can be detected by measuring how easily a small current of electricity can flow between two points on the skin. A machine which does this is called an Electric Skin Resistance meter. Such machines are often used in the context of biofeedback. Another name for them is Lie Detectors, where it is supposed that they will detect a lie because the liar will be slightly more stressed and aroused when speaking the lie than when telling the truth.