References

A new treatment approach for multiple personalities. Am. J. Clin. Hypn., 17, 15-32. Alpert, J. L. (Ed.) (1995a). Sexual Abuse Recalled Treating Trauma in the Era of the Recovered Memory Debate. Northvale, NJ Aronson. Alpert, J. L. (1995b). Criteria Signposts toward the sexual abuse hypothesis. In J. L. Alpert (Ed.), Sexual Abuse Recalled Treating Trauma in the Era of the Recovered Memory Debate (pp. 363-396). Northvale, NJ Aronson. American Psychiatric Association (1994)....

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

In the 1980s, the literature of clinical case reports of successful hypnotic work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients continued to grow. However, in addition to these clinical case reports, the literature began to present new hypnotic techniques for working with psychotic and personality disorder patients and the integration of these techniques into established psychological theory and conceptual models of hypnosis (Baker, 1981, 1983a, b Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986...

Therapeutic Intervention With Hypnosis

When evaluating a new patient, I listen to the patient's communication regarding dysphoric feelings of helplessness, anxiety, hopelessness, inner tension, insomnia, fear, restlessness, and so on. I introduce the idea of using hypnosis by making it relevant to the patient's presenting symptoms, saying to the patient something like this, 'Would you like to learn an exercise of how to reduce your anxiety and promote a sense of calmness and relaxation ' Patients generally respond affirmatively. I...

Who Are Our Hypnotic Clients Indications

This new exposition of hypnosis changes the way we think about patient selection. No longer is it simply a matter of the doctor selecting what is best for the patient. This change in how we think about hypnosis, in combination with our increasing understanding of the interactive nature of the treatment process and the relational aspects (Miller, 1986 Surrey, 1984) of the 'doctor-patient' partnership alters the lens through which we view the suitability of hypnosis for clients. In fact, patients...

Uncovering Age Regression Approaches Intrapsychic Conflicts

The majority of the earlier case reports describing the clinical use of hypnosis with depressed individuals have utilized a psychodynamic framework. Rosen (1955) describes the use of hypnotically induced regression, Abrams (1964) discusses the uncovering of repressed material and Chambers (1968) describes a woman's compulsion to eat raw potatoes in psychoanalytic terms. Haley (1967) details a case report of Milton Erickson's use of hypnosis with automatic drawing in a case of obsessional...

Suitability Of Hypnosis For The Problem

Hypnosis is applicable in almost every area of medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy either as a primary treatment choice or as one that is used adjunctively. The clinician's familiarity with treating the presenting problem nonhypnotically is preeminent. Knowledge of hypnosis is like the buttress of the central structure one's specialty field. The clinician must stay within his or her area of expertise when utilizing hypnosis. Moreover, it is not so much whether or not to apply a hypnotic...

What Are The Clients Beliefs And Perceptions About Hypnosis

The transition between evaluating the client (phase I) and educating the client (phase II) occurs as the clinician begins to determine the client's understanding of hypnosis. Research in the area of positive expectancies has taught us that the responsiveness of a client to any treatment will be affected by their expectations. Therefore, the preparation of our clients for hypnosis is a process of educating them and building positive expectations (Coe, 1993). Kirsch has interpreted the results of...

Reduction In Critical Thinking Reality Testing And Tolerance Of Reality Distortion

Shor (1969) described the operation processes which characterize normal information processing. The 'generalized reality orientation' brings into play the frame of reference whereby the individual interprets and gives meaning to experience. In the hypnotic state this orientation is to a considerable degree suspended, resulting in concrete uncritical thought processes. Clarke and Jackson (1983) noted in their subjects, that 'ability to rouse oppositional self statements beliefs is low during...

Age Regression Abreactions And Catharsis

This specific technique has been found useful with patients in whom the underlying dynamic for the eating disorder has been found to be related to past trauma. This can be done by using hypnosis as a diagnostic tool with the aid of such techniques as the affect bridge (Watkins, 1978 Channon, 1981) and other methods of hypnoanalytic exploration in conjunction with ideomotor signalling (Cheek & Le Cron, 1968 Barnett, 1981 Brown & Fromm, 1986). Once this has been identified, the patient can...

Memory Repression And Recovered Memory

There is extensive evidence that memory is extremely susceptible to the influence of suggestion, postevent information, and source confusion (Belli & Loftus, 1996 Brainerd & Reyna, 1996 Conway, Collins, Gathercole & Anderson, 1996 Hyman & Pentland, 1996 McDermott, 1996 Mitchell & Zaragoza, 1996 Payne, Elie, Blackwell & Neuschatz, 1996 Read, 1996 Roediger, Jacoby & McDermott, 1996 Zaragoza & Mitchell, 1996). For instance, Zaragoza & Mitchell (1996) showed people a...

Nitrous Oxide Conscious Sedation

Nitrous oxide plays a vital role in creating a euphoric hypnotic state and positive hypnotic suggestions enhance the experience. Nitrous oxide conscious sedation is an important adjunct in the contemporary dental practice. Various studies of the relationship between dental phobia and sensitivity to pain experienced by dental patients, indicate that the higher the anxiety, the greater the pain experienced. Dental discomfort can, however, be eliminated without the use of drugs. Holden (1983)...

What Is The Presenting Problem

The gathering of information about the presenting problem is of chief importance for the clinician. Research done by Torrey suggests that the client's motivation for improvement is determined by several factors of which the first is the 'degree to which the therapist's ability to name the disease and its cause agrees with the views of the patient' (Coe, 1993, p. 73). During the evaluation phase of treatment, the clinician will be establishing rapport, assessing the suitability of hypnosis for...

The Aftermath Of Trauma

The DSM-IV (APA, 1994) diagnostic criteria for acute and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involve intrusion, dissociative, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms in the aftermath of a traumatic stressor. A taxi driver in Oklahoma City said 'Oklahoma lost its innocence in this attack, the sense of being the heartland, of being safe.' He added 'I used to like driving downtown, but I don't work downtown much any more. It just doesn't have the same feeling that it used to.' A psychiatrist who...

Middle Phase Altering Cognitions

A whole series of cognitions may contribute to the maintenance of obesity, such as the attitude toward eating, poor self-esteem and the way they perceive and experience their bodies. The Spiegel & Spiegel technique (1978) described earlier, where suggestions are given that 'overeating is harmful and poisons the body', may help the patient to change their attitude toward overeating. Meanwhile, patients can once again become conscious of feelings of hunger and satiation, which can be suggested...

Concrete Applications Of Hypnotic Techniques

In the following section of this chapter, an overview of different hypnotherapeutic strategies and suggestions will be presented in relation to the different treatment phases (see Vanderlinden, Norre & Vandereycken, 1992). Many obese patients are often very tense and have learned to reduce this tension through excessive eating. It is therefore useful to teach a self-hypnosis exercise for relaxation and as an alternative coping strategy for overeating. Patients will be strongly encouraged to...

Dissociation And Trauma

There is growing clinical and some empirical evidence that dissociation may occur especially as a defense during trauma, an attempt to maintain mental control just as physical control is lost Spiegel, 1984 Kluft, 1985 Putnam, 1985 Spiegel, 1988 Bremner, Southwick et al., 1992 Cardena amp Spiegel, 1993 Koopman, Classen et al., 1994 Marmar, Weiss et al.,1994 Butler amp Spiegel, 1997 Butler, Jasiukaitis, Koopman amp Spiegel, 1997 . Fifteen studies of immediate psychological reactions within the...

PHASE lll Hypnotizability Assessment

The assessment of hypnotizability is phase III of patient preparation. Standard measures may be used, although increasingly these are limited to research settings. The most common measurement instruments are The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scales for Adults and Children, The Hypnotic Induction Profile, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A, B, and C, and the Children's Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Other research instruments...

Hypnosis And Psychoneuroimmunology

In light of current interest in psychoneuroimmunology and mind-body connections, a somewhat neglected area of hypnotherapy research of major theoretical and practical interest is the underlying neurophysiological processes that might mediate hypnosis in its contribution to immunomodulation. Interpretation of earlier research is hindered by methodological shortcomings these shortcomings are now being addressed and overcome with the most recent wave of research. It is suggested that the reduction...

Conversion Disorder Dissociation And Hypnotic Trance

The so-called dissociative phenomena are explained by Kihlstrom as follows. The information is not processed explicitly the patient does not consciously perceive an object or remember a happening. Implicitly, however, the stimuli do influence the patient's behaviour. These observations support the view that there are two memory systems the explicit memory system and the implicit memory system Schacter, 1987 or memory with and without awareness Jacoby amp Dallas, 1981 . A similar distinction is...

Observations On The Use Of Hypnosis With Dissociative Disorders Today

The challenge to contemporary practice is to preserve what is useful and solid, to refuse to be panicked into throwing the baby out with the bathwater, and to utilize all available information in a constructive effort to be of help to the dissociative patient. Not only has hypnosis been instrumental in the recovery of many dissociative patients a strong argument can be made that since hypnosis is an inevitable aspect of their treatment, it is best that the treater be prepared to use it...

Injunctive Communication

Erickson was a master of injunctive language. In fact, his style of therapy, and especially hypnosis, can be characterized as building responsiveness to injunctive communication. Applying Watzlawick's ideas to Erickson's work affords a useful insight into the mechanisms activated in a typical induction. A good illustration of this is Erickson's well-known early learning set induction Erickson amp Rossi, 1979 . A close reading of the induction reveals an indicative level how a child learns to...

Healthy Dissociation Away From The Sexual Fears And Negative Cognitions

As a transitional part of therapy, during self-stimulation, the sensate focus or pleasuring experiences, and during actual sexual intimacy, the patient can be encouraged to use dissociation in a healthy and constructive way, to separate themselves from their sexual fears and negative cognitions about their sexual functioning. Hammond 1990 describes strategies for patients to distance themselves from an excessive focus on their sexual functioning. The approach described is equally applicable to...

Dissociative And Placebo Components Of Hypnotic Pain Management

The significant contributions to understanding the nature of acute pain that have been made in the hypnosis literature will not be reviewed. The meticulous psychophysical studies of experimental pain conducted by Hilgard 1969, 1977 and others have shown that there is a lawful relationship between the intensity of the noxious stimulation and the subjective experience of transient, acute pain, which also holds for the reduction of pain following hypnotic analgesia. Most experimental studies of...

Pacifier Finger And Thumb Sucking

According to the authors of 'Oral Habits A Behavioral Approach' Peterson amp Schneider, 1991 'Some 13 to 45 of children are reported to suck their digits. Practically all children who eventually take up the habit do so during their first few months. By 3.5 to 4 years of age, most children have discontinued the habit spontaneously. The severity and even presence of deleterious effects of finger sucking depends on the habit's frequency, duration, intensity, and position of the finger in the...

Conclusion

In summary, the selection of the client for hypnosis is a relational process in which both the client and clinician bring many variables to the therapeutic table. The hypnotic responsiveness of the client, individual differences and the positive expectancies the client holds, or those which are established with the client, are all important variables in the assessment and preparation of a client. There are no known dangers inherent to hypnosis, but contributing factors to 'negative effects' are...

Hyperarousal

The fourth criterion involves hyperarousal symptoms trouble falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, and an exaggerated startled response. Two such symptoms are required. The reader may notice that in many ways these symptoms seem inconsistent. How can one be numb, detached and avoidant and at the same time have intrusive flashbacks and nightmares The crucial issue is that the cluster of PTSD symptoms is a combination of intrusion...

Contraindications

There are only a few instances in which hypnosis should not be used, and these mostly have to do with the skill of the therapist. Hypnosis should not be used with any presenting problem that the clinician is unprepared to treat without hypnosis. When a client's presenting problem is outside the clinician's field of expertise the client should be referred elsewhere. Every clinician has had the experience of meeting a client they would rather not treat. It is advisable to refer them elsewhere, as...