Cognitive Reframing And Restructuring

Cognitive restructuring is described in detail by the Spiegels in their book, Trance and Treatment (1978), and also by cognitive-behavioral therapists such as Meichen-baum (1977) and Kroger and Fezler (1976). In essence, the patient is taught a new way of looking at an old problem and finding new, creative solutions in situations where the patient was cognitively 'chasing his own tail,' and feeling stuck with no way out. The patient with an eating disorder is first guided into a state of...

Conclusions

Hypnosis has been shown to be a viable adjunct, alone or combined with other psychological interventions, for the treatment of a number of physiological and psychological disorders. Experimental evidence shows that more highly hypnotiz-able persons have greater cognitive and physiological flexibility than do lows (e.g., Crawford, 1989). Highs shift more easily from detail to holistic strategies (e.g., Crawford & Allen, 1983), from left to right anterior functioning as demonstrated by...

Research On Hypnosis

The literature on obesity has been swamped in recent years with very pessimistic and negative treatment results, especially regarding the long-term outcome of treatment (Garner & Wooley, 1991). Unlike the situation with anorexia nervosa and bulimia, hypnotherapists have been intensively engaged in the treatment of obesity (see Vanderlinden & Vandereycken, 1988). Many success stories have been reported in the hypnotherapeutic literature, but these are often reports on a very small number...

Brief History Of Ptsd

There has been a tendency to slip into one of two mistaken extremes in regard to PTSD. One is a cynical attitude which implies that most patients are making up their symptoms for secondary gain. An example is a case in which an armored car driver was shot in the chest three times during a robbery. His two colleagues were killed as they were walking out of an elevator. The company he worked for objected to providing treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. This was not some fantasy of...

Historical Use In The Treatment Of Clinical Problems

The use of hypnosis, under other names, for the treatment of clinical problems has a long history, being recorded in ancient scripts describing ritual and religious ceremonies. The phenomena of hypnosis have been used to account for miraculous cures that in the middle ages were attributed to sacred statues, healing springs and the 'laying on of hands' by those of high status or religious power. The more modern use of hypnosis began with the work of the Viennese physician Franz Mesmer, who...

Visiting The Dentist Is Entrancing

Hypnosis plays a vital role in every dental practitioner's interaction with patients. The frightened patient walking into the dental treatment room is most certainly in a trance state. The dentist with training in clinical hypnosis can transform that intense sense of powerlessness and fright to a state of inner calm and comfort. Probably the greatest benefit of clinical hypnosis to the dentist is the ability to recognize the patient's state of consciousness and apply verbal and non-verbal...

Hypnotic Induction For The Modification Of Hopelessness

Individuals experiencing depression express a pervasive sense of hopelessness. The present is seen as negative and joyless and the future is just more of the same. It is important, in order to do any useful work, to attempt to modify this stable negative attribution that characterizes depressed thinking. Ideally the clinician will utilize material from the client to facilitate a trance induction aimed at the modification of hopelessness. Sometimes, in order to access a client's involvement in...

Back From The Future Technique

In this method, hypnotic age progression techniques are utilized as described by Yapko (1984, 1986), Erickson (1985), Frederick and Phillips (1992), and Torem (1992). Here, a discussion is held with a patient about a desired future image the patient would be interested in as representing her full recovery and reaching an ideal stage regarding personal goals, as well as body image and a state of healthy living. This is particularly important with a developing adolescent patient who is in the...

Behavioral Problems

Self-hypnosis skills have value largely as an adjunct in management of the wide range of 'behavioral problems', serving often to help a child and family to interrupt patterns of maladaptive behavior sufficiently to allow change to occur. An approach to this group of concerns requires the establishment of specific objectives. These might include improved coping, allaying of anxiety, and facilitating improved self-esteem with the aid of self-hypnosis, rather than expecting problem resolution as...

Final Phase Prevention Of Relapse

Most treatments are exclusively aimed at quick weight reduction and ignore the crucial goal, namely weight stabilization and prevention of relapse. Relapse is probably the most frequently quoted problem in the treatment of obesity. A follow-up lasting 1 to 2 years is therefore absolutely indicated to prevent possible relapse. The patient will have to be regularly encouraged and stimulated to follow the agreements and to practice hypnotic exercises on a daily basis. Physical exercise and sport...

Prognostic Factors

Obesity or corpulence, meaning an excessive percentage of body fat, has grown into a gigantic problem in recent years. Epidemiological studies give the fraction of obese people in the United States as 35 of the total population, whereas in Europe figures range from 10 to 25 . There is a considerable number of theories about the etiology of this problem, but they will not be discussed here (for an overview see Beumont, Burrows & Casper, 1988). However, it is generally accepted that the...

Transition From Acute To Chronic Pain Anxiety To Depression

The laboratory findings of a one-to-one correlation between the intensity of short-lasting, noxious stimulation and reported pain do not hold true for chronic pain. With most chronic pain patients, the intensity of the pain is not correlated with the intensity of the wound or lesion. The psychological or emotional significance of the pain may be the primary determinant of its perceived intensity. Even acute pain is not a simple matter of stimulus intensity in the clinical situation. Beecher...

Assessing The Potential For Hypnotic Response In The Patient With Pain

Factors considered helpful to the therapist in predicting the outcome of hypnotic pain control include The nature and origin of the pain and whether it is organically or mainly psychologically caused Whether the patient client believes in hypnosis or not and whether they expect it will bring pain relief The presence of 'secondary gain' social or financial rewards for the maintenance of the pain problem The patient's motivation to improve The development of a positive and trusting relationship...

Chronic Disease Multisystem Disease Terminal Illness

Less is known about the influence of hypnosis and self-hypnosis on the progress of malignant disease than about anxiety. Children with cancer do quickly learn RMI strategies and apply them in a variety of ways to aid in coping with their disease. In 'No Fears, No Tears' and its sequel, 'No Fears, No Tears - 13 Years Later' (Kuttner, 1986, 1999), informative and optimistic films, children with cancer demonstrate the range and usefulness of hypnotic techniques in helping themselves to modify...

Controversies Surrounding The Use Of Hypnosis With The Dissociative Disorders

Many controversies currently surround the use of hypnosis with the dissociative disorders. Although they constitute an area of considerable interest, limitations of space preclude their extensive discussion here. The interested reader is referred to more thorough explorations elsewhere (Kluft, 1995b,c, 1997a). Arguments for the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of the dissociative disorders have been countered by concerns that hypnosis has the capacity to play a role in the formation of...

Definition And Theoretical Understanding

Functionally, hypnosis in children can be defined as an alternative state of awareness and alertness (similar in feeling to daydreaming or imagination) in which an individual is selectively focused, absorbed, and concentrating upon a particular idea or image (with or without relaxation), with a specific purpose of achieving some goal or realizing some potential. From this perspective we probably are 'doing' hypnosis work when we engage our young patients in conversation in which they are...

Flexibility In The Hypnotic Management Of Pain

Hypnosis frequently contributes to anxiety reduction but this effect can be distinguished from pain reduction. Anxiety is strongly associated with pain but separate from it a person in acute pain will often be anxious whereas chronic pain is usually associated with depression. Benzodiazepine drugs have been shown to reduce pain by relieving anxiety but they do not affect the pain threshold or the physical sensation of pain. Pain tolerance is something beyond sensory pain and suffering so that,...

Hypnosis And Depression The Definition Of Hypnosis

Yapko (1992) argues that the discrepancy in opinion about the value of hypnosis in the treatment of depression can, in part, be understood by variations in the model of hypnosis being utilized. He describes three general models traditional, standardized, and utilization. Other workers distinguish between directive and non-directive or Ericksonian techniques. The opposition to the use of hypnosis in depression is primarily associated with the traditional, standardized or directive approaches and...

Introductory Workshop Approved And Acceptable By Aschandsceh

All workshop announcements recruit adult participants. The word 'student' is never used. The learning objective enhances the concept of adult education by stating that 'experienced clinicians will gain a solid grounding in the principles and practices of hypnosis, and an understanding of how to integrate it into their own practice of psychotherapy.' (Note that while this workshop is aimed at psychotherapists licensed psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and others on special...

Modification Of Suicidal Impulses

Despite the concern expressed by some therapists that the use of hypnosis may increase suicide risk, other workers have attempted to use the technique to modify suicidal impulses. Hodge (1972, in Hammond, 1990) describes suggestions to deter suicide. These involve the use of direct suggestions to enter a trance and contact the therapist in response to suicidal ideation. 'In the trance you will be unable to commit suicide unless I give you permission the trance itself may be just the factor you...

Phase Ivteach Selfhypnosis

Generally, once the evaluative and educational phases are complete, and hypnotiz-ability has been assessed, the clinician is ready to teach the client self-hypnosis. This is phase IV of the preparation process. A principle for success is to separate the teaching of hypnosis from the presenting problem. For example, the client who presents with a headache should not receive a first intervention for symptom relief until basic hypnotic principles have been taught. Otherwise, the clinician risks...

Regression And Depression

Seriously burned patients easily develop a sense of helplessness and fear of the many painful dressing changes and whirlpool tubbings they are required to undergo. Children in particular regress to infancy and will urinate and defecate in bed and on their wounds, adding to morbidity (LaBaw, 1973). Simply lying in bed is regressive. Burns seldom occur on the bottom of the feet, and as soon as shock is controlled enough to allow the vertical position without hypotension (3 or 4 days), the patient...

Relaxation Is Just A Breath Away

When a patient is obviously anxious about being in the dental treatment room and wants a quick procedure for experiencing a relaxing hypnotic state, the 5-minute relaxation exercise, developed by the author in 1982, is offered. The patient does this hypnotic exercise before the dental procedure is initiated. There is no need for the doctor to be present while the patient is experiencing the calming affects. Copies of this tape can be given to patients to practice at home, or the tape can be...

Summary

Hypnosis as an adjunct to traditional therapy has a special role in management of chronic debilitating conditions. To maintain ethical standards and responsible practice there are learned societies which offer accreditation to clinicians, offering guidelines in controversial areas. In this volume we have been fortunate in obtaining contributions in many areas from authors who have achieved distinction in their fields of endeavour. Several caveats are stressed in their reports. Among others,...

The Early Period A Pessimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

The current status of clinical hypnosis in the treatment of Personality and Psychotic Disorders has been evolving since the mid-1800s. The earliest notation of successful hypnosis with a psychotic patient was reported by Esquirol in 1838. In this report, Esquirol described experiments done by Abbe Faria and himself in 1813 and 1816 on the effects of magnetism in mental disease. Esquirol reported that he and Faria experimented on eleven women, either insane or monomanic. He stated that only one...

Training In Hypnosis

Training programs in using hypnosis differ from each other around the world. Each program strives for standards of training that enhance the learning, accreditation, and public trust in practitioners of hypnotic interventions in individuals seeking responsible health care. While many clinicians want to learn hypnosis in order to treat the more difficult cases which they encounter, true proficiency occurs over time and requires advanced workshops in subsequent months or years. Moreover, an...

Treatment Of Sexual Dysfunctionan Integrated Approach

Masters & Johnson (1966, 1970) proposed an approach to the treatment of sexual difficulties that took these problems out of the realm of long-term psychotherapy. Their investigation of sexual functioning, and focused therapy for sexual difficulties, was an important shift in treatment which created the specialty of 'sex therapy'. Their approach was essentially behavioral in its focus and based around the in vivo desensitization, anxiety control and positive rehearsal of appropriate intimacy...

Volitional Changes And Alterations In Voluntary Muscle Activity

Subjects undergoing hypnotic induction procedures frequently report a sense of their behaviour as being under their normal control. Weitzenhoffer (1978) discussed this as a feature of the 'classic suggestion effect' that is a characteristic of hypnosis. This suggestion effect has two component criteria (a) that there must be a response to a suggestion (b) that the response must be experienced as avolitional. Relaxation, paralysis, automatic movements and rigid catalepsy may all be experienced...

Whatis The History Of Previous Treatments

In making the determination as to whether an hypnotic intervention is suitable for a client, it is important to learn whether the client has had any prior experience with hypnosis or other alternative health approaches such as meditation, relaxation tapes or guided imagery. When there has been previous experience, inquiry about the client's experience as to depth of trance, reaction to suggestions, and the client's measure of the success or usefulness of the previous interventions, will provide...

Combining Hypnosis With Current Therapeutic Approaches To Depression

As summarized earlier, numerous case studies have suggested ways in which hypnotic methods can be utilized in psychodynamic therapy. Yapko (1989, 1992, 1994) has described a variety of indirect and metaphoric techniques in a cognitive-behavioural framework. However, as Stanley (1994) has commented, he has made little use of the wide variety of well-documented, more directive cognitive-behavioural techniques. The Cognitive Dissociative Model of nonendogenous unipolar depression (Alladin, 1994)...

Current Issues

Michael Yapko (1989, 1992, 1994) is the most prolific current therapist to enthusiastically embrace the application of hypnotic techniques to the management of depression. Unfortunately, it is necessary to agree with recent reviewers of his work (Stanley, 1994 Council, 1993) that what is undoubtedly a 'flexible and creative approach to patient management' (Stanley, 1994) is accompanied by a relative disregard for empirical data. Others have levelled this criticism at the Ericksonian brief...

The Nature Of Hypnosis

The nature of hypnosis has been much debated in the literature (Orne, 1959 Kihlstrom, 1985 Lynn & Rhue, 1991). Nevertheless, there is reasonable consensus about some of its defining properties. Although distortions typically occur, hypnosis can be said to occur when one person (the subject) experiences alterations in perception, memory, or mood in response to suggestions given by another person (the hypnotist). Although distortions typically occur, hypnosis is essentially an experiential...

Current Status Of Clinical Hypnosis With Personality And Psychotic Disorders

The majority of the experimental research studies and clinical reports to date supports the conclusion that psychotic and personality disorder patients have hypnotic capacity and can utilize that capacity productively and safely. As with all patient populations, there will be some individual patients who will decline to work with hypnosis. Aside from these self-selected exceptions, the usefulness and safety of hypnosis with the severely disturbed patient depends primarily on the skills and...

Graham D Burrows and Sandra G Boughton

University of Melbourne, Australia University of Western Australia, Australia Depression is a frequently occurring disorder with estimates of the lifetime risk for Major Depressive Disorder varying from 10 to 25 for women and from 5 to 12 for men. Significant levels of depression are also associated with many other major disorders, such as chronic pain. There appears to be a widespread assumption that hypnosis has no role, indeed is inappropriate, in the management of depression. In Australia,...

Current Opinion On The Relationship Between Hypnosis And Depression

A review of the literature indicates that the consensus of opinion is not, in fact, strongly opposed to the use of hypnosis in the treatment of depression. Commentators vary, however, in their readiness to accept the use of hypnosis unconditionally . Yapko (1992) advocates a broad-based acceptance 'As for the specific contraindications to the use of hypnosis, it may seem a bold statement to make, but I am aware of no such contraindications' (p. 186). Clarke & International Handbook of...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain A Brief Review

The Scottish physician, Esdaile (1850 1957) may have been the first to document the use of hypnosis to control pain. Just prior to the development of chemical anesthesia, Esdaile successfully used hypnosis widely in India as the only form of anesthesia for amputations, tumor removals and complex surgical procedures. Overlooked in Esdaile's reports was the fact that most of his patients survived surgery a rare event in those days because of hemorrhage, shock, and postsurgical infection. In...

Clinical Accounts

The Marquis de Puysegar in 1784 expressed concerns about the potential adverse effects of hypnosis when he created 'accidental somnambulism' (Conn, 1981). By the middle of the nineteenth century, frequent concerns were being raised about the use of hypnosis, although in the first instance these related to the manipulation of patients to act against their will or to their seduction (Conn, 1981 Reiter, 1958). Clinical accounts of complications arising from hypnosis appeared sporadically and in...

Is The Pain In The Main Plainly In The Brain

While many clinicians view headaches as primarily a psychological manifestation, it is imperative that a complete medical dental workup be performed. One of the prime causes of muscle tension headaches in the temporal area may be attributed to bruxism and dental malocclusion. To understand the relation between muscle tension headaches and the mouth, place the tips of the fingers of the right hand on the right temple and the left fingers on the left temple, as though ready to massage the sides...

Training In Hypnosis My Programs And How I Teach Them

First, I will present two workshops, each given over 8 weeks in the evenings one in the Fall and one in the Spring. Each workshop is 22 hours in length, lasting nearly 3 hours each evening. They are titled 'Clinical Methods in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy Integration and Applications Introductory Workshop (Fall) and Advanced Workshop (Spring).' Then, I will describe briefly an ongoing Senior Seminar which meets monthly throughout the year for graduates of the first two workshops. While the...

Suicide Risk

It has been argued that the risk of suicide makes the use of hypnosis dangerous in the management of depression. Crasilneck & Hall (1985) argue that hypnosis is inappropriately used in an outpatient setting for this reason. The potential for increased suicide risk has been explained in a number of ways. Burrows (1980) argues that hypnosis may inappropriately relieve anxiety before depressive affect has significantly lifted, allowing the depressed individual sufficient energy and anxiety...

The Transitional Period A More Optimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

A significant breakthrough in understanding the potential use of hypnosis with psychotic patients came in 1945 with the publication of Lewis Wolberg's book on the hypnoanalysis of Johan R. Johan R. had been confined on the chronic ward of a hospital with a diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia when Wolberg first attempted to work with him. It took Wolberg more than a year to establish a beginning therapy relationship with the patient. Beginning with traditional psychoanalytic techniques,...

Why Is Hypnosis Useful In The Treatment Of Sexual Dysfunction

Hypnosis, when added to traditional approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunction in both males and females, facilitates treatment and extends treatment options. Hammond (1990) noted the advantages in using hypnosis as an adjunct to traditional forms of sexual dysfunction, particularly in the way hypnotically-based techniques may assist in working with the single individual if the patient's partner is unwilling, unavailable or non-existent. Hypnosis provides direct and indirect ways of...

Traditional Roles Of Hypnosis With Dissociative Disorders

Until fairly recently, hypnosis had been recommended rather unequivocally for use in the treatment of the dissociative disorders. The clear parallel between well-known hypnotic phenomena and the naturalistically-occurring phenomenology of the dissociative disorders (see Braun, 1983 Bliss, 1986) the argument that many manifestations of the dissociative disorders were the result of the unwitting abuse of autohypnosis (Breuer & Freud, 1955 Bliss, 1986) and the clear demonstrations that hypnotic...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain Management Useful Clinical Strategies

The typical chronic pain patient will be taking several medications, and will have been treated unsuccessfully by several specialists before considering hypnosis. These may have included neurologists and (neuro)surgeons ('when in doubt, cut it out'), manipulative procedures by orthopedic and chiropractic specialists ('when in doubt, pound it out'), physical therapists ('when in doubt, walk it out'), mental health professionals ('when in doubt, talk it out'), and extensive pharmacological...

Hypnosis May Precipitate Further Deterioration

This notion exists in a number of forms. Several commentators have suggested (e.g., Miller, 1979 Terman, 1980) that by focusing hypnotically on emotionally laden aspects of the individual's life, further disintegration of the ego may occur. Hypnosis has also been described as precipitating a more rapid development of 'transference' distortions which may result in the patient being over-reactive to specific therapy issues (Burrows, 1980). These issues appear to be related to the psychodynamic...

Selfhypnosis As The Goal

In keeping with modern approaches to patient care and autonomy patients are encouraged to become more involved in their own management, both by selecting their own fantasies and maintaining a two-way communication with a hypnotic practitioner. There is a trend towards natural methods, and the authoritative hypnotist is giving way to a more permissive guide, who takes the hypnotic subject through the new territory of their altered state of awareness until they are prepared to take their own...

Severely Depressed Individuals Lack The Capacity To Utilize Hypnosis

There is a range of variations to this hypothesis that either individuals with depression are less able to attend or are less hypnotizable. Spiegel & Spiegel (1978) suggest that 'Those with serious depressions may be so narcissistically withdrawn and devoid of energy that they cannot attend to the input signals' (pp. 148-149). Others point to the difficulties in concentration and attention associated with severe depression, suggesting that these individuals are unable to focus on the...

Dabneym Ewin

The seriously burned patient needs psychiatric help from the time of injury to full recovery, and this need is increasing as modern burn centers are dramatically improving survival rates. Hypnosis is the psychiatric treatment of choice, possibly because these patients come to the emergency room in a focused state that is the equivalent of a good trance, and all that is required is to insinuate oneself into the trance and then guide away from terror into confidence. I predict that it will not be...

Treatment Of Premature Ejaculation

Premature ejaculation is one of the most treatable of male sexual dysfunctions a variety of direct and indirect suggestions have been used in its treatment. Many approaches have focused on anxiety reduction as the primary goal, as performance anxiety is the most common cause of a rapid ejaculatory response. Hypnotically assisted desensitization and rehearsal of appropriate sexual responding are applicable to this anxiety-driven disorder. Creative uses of healthy dissociation and distraction can...

References

A new treatment approach for multiple personalities. Am. J. Clin. Hypn., 17, 15-32. Alpert, J. L. (Ed.) (1995a). Sexual Abuse Recalled Treating Trauma in the Era of the Recovered Memory Debate. Northvale, NJ Aronson. Alpert, J. L. (1995b). Criteria Signposts toward the sexual abuse hypothesis. In J. L. Alpert (Ed.), Sexual Abuse Recalled Treating Trauma in the Era of the Recovered Memory Debate (pp. 363-396). Northvale, NJ Aronson. American Psychiatric Association (1994)....

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

In the 1980s, the literature of clinical case reports of successful hypnotic work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients continued to grow. However, in addition to these clinical case reports, the literature began to present new hypnotic techniques for working with psychotic and personality disorder patients and the integration of these techniques into established psychological theory and conceptual models of hypnosis (Baker, 1981, 1983a, b Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986...

Therapeutic Intervention With Hypnosis

When evaluating a new patient, I listen to the patient's communication regarding dysphoric feelings of helplessness, anxiety, hopelessness, inner tension, insomnia, fear, restlessness, and so on. I introduce the idea of using hypnosis by making it relevant to the patient's presenting symptoms, saying to the patient something like this, 'Would you like to learn an exercise of how to reduce your anxiety and promote a sense of calmness and relaxation ' Patients generally respond affirmatively. I...

Who Are Our Hypnotic Clients Indications

This new exposition of hypnosis changes the way we think about patient selection. No longer is it simply a matter of the doctor selecting what is best for the patient. This change in how we think about hypnosis, in combination with our increasing understanding of the interactive nature of the treatment process and the relational aspects (Miller, 1986 Surrey, 1984) of the 'doctor-patient' partnership alters the lens through which we view the suitability of hypnosis for clients. In fact, patients...

Uncovering Age Regression Approaches Intrapsychic Conflicts

The majority of the earlier case reports describing the clinical use of hypnosis with depressed individuals have utilized a psychodynamic framework. Rosen (1955) describes the use of hypnotically induced regression, Abrams (1964) discusses the uncovering of repressed material and Chambers (1968) describes a woman's compulsion to eat raw potatoes in psychoanalytic terms. Haley (1967) details a case report of Milton Erickson's use of hypnosis with automatic drawing in a case of obsessional...

Suitability Of Hypnosis For The Problem

Hypnosis is applicable in almost every area of medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy either as a primary treatment choice or as one that is used adjunctively. The clinician's familiarity with treating the presenting problem nonhypnotically is preeminent. Knowledge of hypnosis is like the buttress of the central structure one's specialty field. The clinician must stay within his or her area of expertise when utilizing hypnosis. Moreover, it is not so much whether or not to apply a hypnotic...

What Are The Clients Beliefs And Perceptions About Hypnosis

The transition between evaluating the client (phase I) and educating the client (phase II) occurs as the clinician begins to determine the client's understanding of hypnosis. Research in the area of positive expectancies has taught us that the responsiveness of a client to any treatment will be affected by their expectations. Therefore, the preparation of our clients for hypnosis is a process of educating them and building positive expectations (Coe, 1993). Kirsch has interpreted the results of...

Reduction In Critical Thinking Reality Testing And Tolerance Of Reality Distortion

Shor (1969) described the operation processes which characterize normal information processing. The 'generalized reality orientation' brings into play the frame of reference whereby the individual interprets and gives meaning to experience. In the hypnotic state this orientation is to a considerable degree suspended, resulting in concrete uncritical thought processes. Clarke and Jackson (1983) noted in their subjects, that 'ability to rouse oppositional self statements beliefs is low during...

Age Regression Abreactions And Catharsis

This specific technique has been found useful with patients in whom the underlying dynamic for the eating disorder has been found to be related to past trauma. This can be done by using hypnosis as a diagnostic tool with the aid of such techniques as the affect bridge (Watkins, 1978 Channon, 1981) and other methods of hypnoanalytic exploration in conjunction with ideomotor signalling (Cheek & Le Cron, 1968 Barnett, 1981 Brown & Fromm, 1986). Once this has been identified, the patient can...

Memory Repression And Recovered Memory

There is extensive evidence that memory is extremely susceptible to the influence of suggestion, postevent information, and source confusion (Belli & Loftus, 1996 Brainerd & Reyna, 1996 Conway, Collins, Gathercole & Anderson, 1996 Hyman & Pentland, 1996 McDermott, 1996 Mitchell & Zaragoza, 1996 Payne, Elie, Blackwell & Neuschatz, 1996 Read, 1996 Roediger, Jacoby & McDermott, 1996 Zaragoza & Mitchell, 1996). For instance, Zaragoza & Mitchell (1996) showed people a...

Nitrous Oxide Conscious Sedation

Nitrous oxide plays a vital role in creating a euphoric hypnotic state and positive hypnotic suggestions enhance the experience. Nitrous oxide conscious sedation is an important adjunct in the contemporary dental practice. Various studies of the relationship between dental phobia and sensitivity to pain experienced by dental patients, indicate that the higher the anxiety, the greater the pain experienced. Dental discomfort can, however, be eliminated without the use of drugs. Holden (1983)...

What Is The Presenting Problem

The gathering of information about the presenting problem is of chief importance for the clinician. Research done by Torrey suggests that the client's motivation for improvement is determined by several factors of which the first is the 'degree to which the therapist's ability to name the disease and its cause agrees with the views of the patient' (Coe, 1993, p. 73). During the evaluation phase of treatment, the clinician will be establishing rapport, assessing the suitability of hypnosis for...

The Aftermath Of Trauma

The DSM-IV (APA, 1994) diagnostic criteria for acute and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involve intrusion, dissociative, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms in the aftermath of a traumatic stressor. A taxi driver in Oklahoma City said 'Oklahoma lost its innocence in this attack, the sense of being the heartland, of being safe.' He added 'I used to like driving downtown, but I don't work downtown much any more. It just doesn't have the same feeling that it used to.' A psychiatrist who...

Middle Phase Altering Cognitions

A whole series of cognitions may contribute to the maintenance of obesity, such as the attitude toward eating, poor self-esteem and the way they perceive and experience their bodies. The Spiegel & Spiegel technique (1978) described earlier, where suggestions are given that 'overeating is harmful and poisons the body', may help the patient to change their attitude toward overeating. Meanwhile, patients can once again become conscious of feelings of hunger and satiation, which can be suggested...

Concrete Applications Of Hypnotic Techniques

In the following section of this chapter, an overview of different hypnotherapeutic strategies and suggestions will be presented in relation to the different treatment phases (see Vanderlinden, Norre & Vandereycken, 1992). Many obese patients are often very tense and have learned to reduce this tension through excessive eating. It is therefore useful to teach a self-hypnosis exercise for relaxation and as an alternative coping strategy for overeating. Patients will be strongly encouraged to...

Dissociation And Trauma

There is growing clinical and some empirical evidence that dissociation may occur especially as a defense during trauma, an attempt to maintain mental control just as physical control is lost Spiegel, 1984 Kluft, 1985 Putnam, 1985 Spiegel, 1988 Bremner, Southwick et al., 1992 Cardena amp Spiegel, 1993 Koopman, Classen et al., 1994 Marmar, Weiss et al.,1994 Butler amp Spiegel, 1997 Butler, Jasiukaitis, Koopman amp Spiegel, 1997 . Fifteen studies of immediate psychological reactions within the...

PHASE lll Hypnotizability Assessment

The assessment of hypnotizability is phase III of patient preparation. Standard measures may be used, although increasingly these are limited to research settings. The most common measurement instruments are The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scales for Adults and Children, The Hypnotic Induction Profile, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A, B, and C, and the Children's Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Other research instruments...

Hypnosis And Psychoneuroimmunology

In light of current interest in psychoneuroimmunology and mind-body connections, a somewhat neglected area of hypnotherapy research of major theoretical and practical interest is the underlying neurophysiological processes that might mediate hypnosis in its contribution to immunomodulation. Interpretation of earlier research is hindered by methodological shortcomings these shortcomings are now being addressed and overcome with the most recent wave of research. It is suggested that the reduction...

Conversion Disorder Dissociation And Hypnotic Trance

The so-called dissociative phenomena are explained by Kihlstrom as follows. The information is not processed explicitly the patient does not consciously perceive an object or remember a happening. Implicitly, however, the stimuli do influence the patient's behaviour. These observations support the view that there are two memory systems the explicit memory system and the implicit memory system Schacter, 1987 or memory with and without awareness Jacoby amp Dallas, 1981 . A similar distinction is...

Observations On The Use Of Hypnosis With Dissociative Disorders Today

The challenge to contemporary practice is to preserve what is useful and solid, to refuse to be panicked into throwing the baby out with the bathwater, and to utilize all available information in a constructive effort to be of help to the dissociative patient. Not only has hypnosis been instrumental in the recovery of many dissociative patients a strong argument can be made that since hypnosis is an inevitable aspect of their treatment, it is best that the treater be prepared to use it...

Injunctive Communication

Erickson was a master of injunctive language. In fact, his style of therapy, and especially hypnosis, can be characterized as building responsiveness to injunctive communication. Applying Watzlawick's ideas to Erickson's work affords a useful insight into the mechanisms activated in a typical induction. A good illustration of this is Erickson's well-known early learning set induction Erickson amp Rossi, 1979 . A close reading of the induction reveals an indicative level how a child learns to...

Healthy Dissociation Away From The Sexual Fears And Negative Cognitions

As a transitional part of therapy, during self-stimulation, the sensate focus or pleasuring experiences, and during actual sexual intimacy, the patient can be encouraged to use dissociation in a healthy and constructive way, to separate themselves from their sexual fears and negative cognitions about their sexual functioning. Hammond 1990 describes strategies for patients to distance themselves from an excessive focus on their sexual functioning. The approach described is equally applicable to...

Dissociative And Placebo Components Of Hypnotic Pain Management

The significant contributions to understanding the nature of acute pain that have been made in the hypnosis literature will not be reviewed. The meticulous psychophysical studies of experimental pain conducted by Hilgard 1969, 1977 and others have shown that there is a lawful relationship between the intensity of the noxious stimulation and the subjective experience of transient, acute pain, which also holds for the reduction of pain following hypnotic analgesia. Most experimental studies of...

Pacifier Finger And Thumb Sucking

According to the authors of 'Oral Habits A Behavioral Approach' Peterson amp Schneider, 1991 'Some 13 to 45 of children are reported to suck their digits. Practically all children who eventually take up the habit do so during their first few months. By 3.5 to 4 years of age, most children have discontinued the habit spontaneously. The severity and even presence of deleterious effects of finger sucking depends on the habit's frequency, duration, intensity, and position of the finger in the...

Conclusion

In summary, the selection of the client for hypnosis is a relational process in which both the client and clinician bring many variables to the therapeutic table. The hypnotic responsiveness of the client, individual differences and the positive expectancies the client holds, or those which are established with the client, are all important variables in the assessment and preparation of a client. There are no known dangers inherent to hypnosis, but contributing factors to 'negative effects' are...

Hyperarousal

The fourth criterion involves hyperarousal symptoms trouble falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, and an exaggerated startled response. Two such symptoms are required. The reader may notice that in many ways these symptoms seem inconsistent. How can one be numb, detached and avoidant and at the same time have intrusive flashbacks and nightmares The crucial issue is that the cluster of PTSD symptoms is a combination of intrusion...

Contraindications

There are only a few instances in which hypnosis should not be used, and these mostly have to do with the skill of the therapist. Hypnosis should not be used with any presenting problem that the clinician is unprepared to treat without hypnosis. When a client's presenting problem is outside the clinician's field of expertise the client should be referred elsewhere. Every clinician has had the experience of meeting a client they would rather not treat. It is advisable to refer them elsewhere, as...