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Destroy Depression

Destroy Depression is written by James Gordon, a former sufferer of depression from the United Kingdom who was unhappy with the treatment he was being given by medical personnell to fight his illness. Apparently, he stopped All of his medication one day and began to search for answers on how to cure himself of depression in a 100% natural way. He spent every waking hour researching all he could on the subject, making notes and changing things along the way until he had totally cured his depression. Three years later, he put all of his findings into an eBook and the Destroy Depression System was born. The Destroy Depression System is a comprehensive system that will guide you to overcome your depression and to prevent it from injuring you mentally and physically. Read more...

Destroy Depression Summary

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4.8 stars out of 19 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: James Gordon
Official Website: destroydepression.com
Price: $37.00

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My Destroy Depression Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

What We Know About Treating Depression With Hypnosis

Hypnosis in the treatment of depression is a relatively new application, as mentioned earlier. When experts in hypnosis taught for decades that hypnosis would strip away defenses and precipitate psychotic reactions in depressed people, or energize their suicidal ideation and transform it into suicidal behavior, there was no therapeutic rationale for employing hypnosis with depression sufferers. Treating people and not their labels, structuring the hypnosis sessions to build positive expectations for the future instead of amplifying negative ones, and finding and hypnotically expanding peoples' resources are all ways in which clinical practice has changed and hypnosis has come to be immediately relevant to treating depression sufferers.

Some Of What We Know About Treating Depression With Psychotherapy

A number of important insights about major depression and suggestions for its treatment were articulated in the depression treatment guidelines developed by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), now the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHQR) (Depression Guideline Panel, 1993)

Examples Of Depressive Symptoms And Risk Factors As Intervention Targets

Targeting insomnia with hypnosis has special importance because insomnia is both a symptom and risk factor. (See my insomnia chapter in this volume Chapter 7 for a more in-depth consideration of this topic.) For reasons currently unknown, there is a correlation between insomnia and later relapses. For someone suffering a depressive episode and experiencing a sleep disturbance, if the sleep disturbance remits when the depressive episode ends, the person is statistically at a lower risk for later relapses. If, however, the depression lifts and the person's disturbed sleep does not return to normal, the person is at a higher statistical risk for later relapses (Kravitz & Newman, 1995). Thus, assessing the client's sleep is important for clinicians to do. Actively intervening with hypnosis to enhance sleep (through suggestions for both relaxation and diminished rumination) might well have a profound impact on both the course of depression and the risk for later relapses. Research in...

Utilizing Hypnosis With Depressed Patients

As stated earlier, hypnosis has not been addressed extensively in the literature on the treatment of depression. One of the problems in the treatment of depression in general has been the fact that, because of unremitting despair and hopelessness, a significant number of patients drop out of therapy before the resolution of symptoms can take place (Johnson, 2001). Gafner (2005) commented, To turn around chronic depression, I believe you have to practice the equivalent of the full-court press in basketball, or the 'full code' in medicine (p. 170). Thus, because of the nature of depression itself (i.e., the apathy and numbing fueled by hopelessness and helplessness) and the complexities of its interactions with chronic pain and trauma, therapists must be prepared to utilize all the tools within their psychotherapy toolbox. The good news is that not only can both formal and indirect hypnotic suggestion facilitate rapport and alliance with the therapist for the depressed patient, but its...

Treating Depression

Hypnosis and Treating Depression diversifies the range of topics to consider and increases the number of knowledgeable contributors on the subject of treating depression with hypnosis. The book features chapter contributions by highly experienced and well-known experts on using hypnosis to treat specific forms of depression, with assessment and intervention strategies as well as sample transcripts of the use of hypnosis in therapy sessions. It discusses both broad and targeted applications of hypnosis in treatment, the treatment of depression with hypnosis in special populations, as well as special considerations regarding hypnotic treatment. As a practical guidebook for clinicians looking to add to their treatment protocols, Hypnosis and Treating Depression Applications in Clinical Practice provides an updated and comprehensive volume on therapeutic uses of hypnosis in the treatment of depression. and Treating Depression Hypnosis and Treating Depression Hypnosis and treating...

Some Relevant History

It's much easier to talk about the merits of hypnosis for treating depression now than it was in years past. In fact, when I wrote Hypnosis and the Treatment of Depressions in 1992 (published by Brunner Mazel), it was the first book ever written on the use of hypnosis for treating depression. I detailed in the first few chapters why hypnosis had incorrectly and unfortunately been considered a con-traindicated treatment for depression. I made the point that outdated views of both hypnosis (e.g., incorrectly defined only as a heightened suggestibility that would strip away peoples' defenses or lead to symptom substitution) and depression (e.g., incorrectly said to be caused by anger turned inward or some hypothetical psychodynamic conflict) had caused many respected leaders in the field to dismiss its use as a serious therapeutic tool. I respectfully submitted that it was time to update our collective viewpoints with current information. To my great satisfaction, many people listened....

What We Know About Depression

Rise in the rate of depression around the world is a leading cause of human suffering and disability (Klerman & Weissman, 1989 World Health Organization, 2001). The costs of depression on a variety of levels are huge Marriages and families splinter, individuals suffer, societies suffer the consequences of the often destructive behaviors of people coping badly or not at all with their depression, businesses suffer the negative effects of employees too disabled to function properly, greater health care expenses for depressed patients lead to enormous economic costs, and societies experience the tragedy of suicides and lives lost to despair and apathy. Depression is a terribly disabling disorder, and despite significant advances in treatment, the problem continues to grow in scope rather than diminish. It is a sad fact that most of the people who need help don't get it. Currently, the medical model of depression receives the greatest attention for a variety of reasons. The...

The Organization Of This Volume

The third section narrows the focus even further to the use of hypnosis in treating depression that either is comorbid with other conditions or exists in special populations. These include comorbid eating disorders, children and youth populations, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and pain patients, and children on the autistic spectrum. The fourth and final section addresses two key issues in treatment how to view antidepressant medications in light of evidence suggesting that a significant component of their effectiveness is the result of suggestion, and how to reduce the client's vulnerability to relapses when depression is well known to be a chronic phenomenon (Pettit & Joiner, 2006). In a good clinical hypnosis session, the client is typically given a summary of the session's key points as well as encouragement in the form of posthypnotic suggestions to think beyond the immediacy of the suggestions just given. The final chapter, in a similar way, can be viewed as an...

Is Clinical Hypnosis An Empirically Supported Treatment For Depression

Outcome (Kirsch, Montgomery, & Sapirstein, 1995 Lynn, Kirsch, Barabasz, Cardena, & Patterson, 2000 Schoenberger, 2000). However, it is admittedly an extrapolation of available data to suggest that hypnosis can enhance treatment results for depression in particular. Undoubtedly, this is a valid concern to those who want therapeutic efficacy data specific to the value of hypnosis in treating major depression. Until such research data become available, we can rely on the strong clinical evidence that indicates that when it is integrated with other established therapies, hypnosis can be helpful in addressing and resolving many of the most troublesome components (i.e., patterns and risk factors) of depression.

Ambiguity Making Meaning And Depressive Risk

To diagnose a depression is not the same as declaring that it has a specific meaning. Aaron Beck was right to have questioned decades ago whether instead of depression being the outgrowth of some deeper intrapsychic conflict, depression might itself be the problem and the symptoms of depression the most appropriate targets for treatment (Beck et al., 1979). This provided a foundation for a clever divide and conquer strategy that works quite well, as efficacy studies indicate. Now, decades later, we can recognize that each of the treatments that has been deemed empirically supported for treating depression is short term and focuses on the dual goals of skill building and symptom resolution (Depression Guideline Panel, 1993 Schulberg et al., 1998).

Confronting Racket Feelings

Some clients diagnosed with clinical depression do not label their emotional state as depressed. Instead, they may refer to their condition as feeling rejected, feeling that they don't care about life, and feeling what's the use, dejected, unimportant, and so on. These feelings are substitute, or racket, feelings that, during their lifetime, have habitually concealed other chronically unexpressed feelings (Berne, 1972).

The Management Of Chronic Stress

The same applies to depression or anxiety disorders. With the diagnosis of a psychiatric or psychological disorder the treatment of choice may be either pharmacological or psychological or both. The nature and severity of the presenting condition will be considered in making this decision. Effective antidepressant medication or the judicious use of benzodiazepines may have a part to play in treating the outcome of the stress.

Graham D Burrows and Sandra G Boughton

Depression is a frequently occurring disorder with estimates of the lifetime risk for Major Depressive Disorder varying from 10 to 25 for women and from 5 to 12 for men. Significant levels of depression are also associated with many other major disorders, such as chronic pain. There appears to be a widespread assumption that hypnosis has no role, indeed is inappropriate, in the management of depression. In Australia, over the past 10 years, material presented for examination by the Australian Hypnosis Society or for publication in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Hypnosis has not included any detailed description of clinical or experimental work on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of depression. The understanding has been that expert opinion regards hypnosis as contraindicated for the management of individuals presenting with depression. It would seem that the situation has not significantly changed since Burrows (1980) concluded that It would seem nevertheless that most...

The Nature Of Depression

In terms of DSM-IV criteria, a diagnosis of Major Depression requires evidence of at least one primary symptom and at least four associated symptoms lasting nearly every day for at least two weeks. Depressed mood and a distinct loss of interest or pleasure in most or all activities (anhedonia) count as primary symptoms. The secondary symptoms are (a) appetite disturbance or weight change (b) sleep disturbance (c) psychomotor agitation or retardation (d) fatigue or loss of energy (e) feelings of worthlessness or guilt (f) diminished concentration or decision-making ability, (g) thoughts of death or suicide. DSM-IV distinguishes between Major Depression and a range of other mood disorders including Dysthymic Disorder and Bipolar I Disorder. This range of classifications attempts to encompass the variety of presentations of significant depressive mood. Current thinking (e.g. Parker, 1996) emphasizes that the notion of depression includes a range of disorders 'As ''depression''...

Healing and Hypnosis III

Common psychosomatic illness seen at the dawn of the 21st century include panic attacks, anxiety disorders, depression, environmental illness and a host of symptoms with no apparent pathology. Using (some but not all) depression as an example of psychosomatic illness, we find some common roots. Many clients have repressed guilt and or hostility as the key to their depressive illness. In these instances, hypnotherapy can be used to create an equilibrium within the individual and the depression often disappears.

What If A Clients Expressed Goals Are Negative

The depressive symptoms may have served as the person's only coping strategy, albeit not the most effective one, for a long time. Even if it was possible to eliminate ineffective coping strategies, like excising a tumor, what is the client left with It is both unrealistic and impractical to offer to remove the current coping strategies, leave the client in a state of neutrality, and not use the context of therapy to build more appropriate or effective coping skills. Therapeutic goals will be more attainable and the therapy process more pragmatic when directed toward creating the desired goal rather than eliminating a problem.

Severely Depressed Individuals Lack The Capacity To Utilize Hypnosis

Pettinati, Kogan, Evans et al. (1990) compared hypnotizability on two measures, the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) and the Stanford Hypnotic Suggestibility Scale C (SHSS C) for five clinical and one normal college populations. The group with a diagnosis of major depression scored higher on the SHSS C than the normal population and only marginally lower, although higher than the anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia groups, on the HIP

Utilizing Hypnotic Techniques In A Cognitivebehavioural Management Programme For Depression

2 Hopelessness may need to be addressed before an individual experiencing major depression is able to engage in any other aspect of therapy. An understanding of hopelessness is a significant feature of cognitive-behavioural approaches to depression. The learned helplessness model of depression (Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) emphasizes 'depressive' attributional style whilst Beck's (1979) theory of depression included a negative view of the future as one aspect of his depressive triad. Yapko (1992) describes several strategies to address hopelessness. Appendix A contains a description of a possible approach to the modification of hopelessness using a hypnotic process.

Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Chemotherapy in Cancer

Rosen models for us his approach to assisting cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. As I point out in Chapter 16, there have been suggestions of caution expressed about using age progression techniques with seriously depressed patients lest they project themselves into a very negative future that exacerbates feelings of hopelessness. This could be iatrogenic and increase suicide potential. Thus you are cautioned to use age progression thoughtfully in working with cancer patients, assessing their level of depression and suicide potential prior to intervention. (Ed.)

Comorbidity Of Depression And Anxiety

What is not evident from these statistics, and the recitation of the grim repercussions of these disorders, is the fact that symptoms of depression and anxiety often occur together. In fact, statistically speaking, the co-occurrence or comorbidity of these disorders is the rule rather than the exception. Indeed, epidemiological studies have indicated that up to 59.2 of lifetime cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) occur concomitantly with an anxiety disorder, and approximately 56 of individuals with an anxiety disorder also experience a depressive disorder (Joiner, Voeltz, & Rudd, 2001 Zajecka & Ross, 1995). Moreover, comorbidity rates vary among the specific anxiety and mood disorders. For instance, Brown and Barlow (2002) reported that MDD, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were the most frequently comorbid disorders, whereas panic disorder had the lowest comorbidity rate. Furthermore, studies have shown that up to 79...

Negative and Catastrophic Thinking

The catastrophic and negative thoughts that fill the dysphoric person's mind are often unbidden, seem to come out of nowhere, and are known as automatic thoughts (Beck, 1976). In depressed individuals, automatic thoughts typically focus on themes of loss, rejection, and failure, whereas in anxiety disorders, the focus is most often on the perception of threat. In particular, depressed patients tend to have automatic thoughts that belong to what Beck has described as the cognitive triad. These are persistent negative thoughts about the self, the world, and the future. Assessing, challenging, and changing negative thoughts and the cognitive distortions that give rise to them is a key feature of cognitive therapy (Lynn & Kirsch, 2006).

Preludes with Potential Dark Nights and Depressions

Are only certain kinds of people prone to have dark nights on their meditative path If so, could they (and we) embark on a somewhat different style of meditative practice so as to encourage the preludes of depression to evolve toward the most positive, creative outcomes We need longitudinal studies to answer these questions. Meanwhile, some reports suggest that the most creative persons are not the ones afflicted by a bipolar manic-depressive disorder. Instead, the creative outcomes tend to occur among their close relatives, in those family members who seem better able to direct their energies more constructively into that fruitful zone between the two polar extremes the heights so pressured and distracted, the depths so gloomy with blank despair.6 Some answers are now coming in. Recent studies are beginning to clarify the mechanisms underlying several subtypes of depression. One subgroup of patients appears to have a reduced functional level of serotonin activity7 Their spinal fluid...

Insomnia As A Risk Factor For Depression

Because insomnia and depression are so often found together, it is logical to wonder whether insomnia causes depression, depression causes insomnia, or they cause each other. The best evidence to date suggests that insomnia and depression share some common pathology that leads to both conditions (Roth & Roehrs, 2003). Although that may be true, it is of critical importance to note that they do not usually share the same temporal onset. In fact, insomnia often precedes depression (Ohayon & Roth, 2003). The onset of insomnia may serve as an early warning signal for an impending depressive episode and thus may be considered a significant risk factor for the eventual development of depression. Thase (2000) reported that in a prospective study of nondepressed subjects from the general population, complaints of persistent sleep disturbances were risk factors for the onset of depression within one year. In another study by Breslau, Roth, Rosenthal, and Andreski (1996), there was a...

How Often Does Enlightenment Occur

In one particular subgroup, 43 percent of the subjects reported having mystical experiences.2 Who were they People then in their fifties, all of them born during the ten-year period starting around 1914. Was there anything unusual about this generation For one thing, it had been raised under a set of circumstances that John Burroughs might regard as adverse. This particular generation had been sobered at the youngest age by the consequences of one or two world wars, by a major depression, by the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and then by the turbulent 1960s. If its members did not bear the burden of such sufferings firsthand, they could not have escaped being assailed by suffering as it was presented in the new photojournalism. For this generation had seen seemingly kind humans wage cruel wars against one another on an unprecedented scale. Death struck everywhere, not only out on the front lines but in cities far removed and in concentration camps. During the Second World War alone,...

Assessment Strategies

Others routinely evaluate their clients for major depression and other mood disorders through clinical interviews alone. When this type of informal assessment is conducted, it is helpful to examine such factors as coping style. Chaves (1993), for example, reported his research on the spontaneous coping strategies used by patients during dental procedures. He identified two groups spontaneous copers who engaged in a mental focus that reduced pain, and spontaneous cata-strophizers whose mental strategies amplified pain. Similar coping styles have been reported for depressed patients (Peterson, Prout, & Schwarz, 1991). I asked Sue about depression and trauma, which I do routinely with chronic pain patients. Sue told me that she had been treated for depression at the time of her divorce, more than 20 years earlier, when she had become a single mother raising a 3-year-old daughter. She had felt very hopeless and despairing then and was grateful for the help of the medication, but did...

Depression And Autistic Spectrum Disorders Uncharted Territory

The psychology of depression has been well elaborated in the literature, identifying risk factors and effective treatment strategies (Beck, 1976, 1997 O'Connor, 2001 Seligman, 1989, 1990 M. Yapko, 1997). Many of these same psychological patterns are also evident in ASD individuals and suggest a strong relevance in their treatment. For example, a pervasive sense of helplessness, often found in depressed individuals, is also often found in ASD individuals (Barnhill & Smith-Myles, 2001 Smith-Myles & Simpson, 2002). Although we know a great deal about potentially effective treatment strategies for each of these populations separately, there is little practical information currently available suggesting ways to identify and treat depression as a comorbid condition in the ASD population. This chapter addresses these issues by identifying appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention. Readers will be introduced to how hypnosis may enhance the treatment process in working with ASD...

Is The Pain In The Main Plainly In The Brain

Effectively managing TMD requires a two-pronged approach of physically eliminating the noxious dental stimulus and mentally relaxing the muscles of mastication and muscles of facial expression. The use of medication and massage of sore muscles may expedite the healing process. Treatment of the physical etiology may be as simple as polishing fillings that have expanded with the course of time. Other treatment options may range from wearing a specially designed 'bite guard' appliance during sleep (or when stress is experienced during the day), to comprehensive orthodontic treatment and full mouth reconstruction with dental implants, crowns and bridges. But it may be impossible to determine the proper bite relation as long as the supporting muscles are in the clenched or braced posture. Resolution of the disorder requires a coordinated effort. The patient needs to learn how to relax the muscle of mastication and the dentist needs to adjust the bite for optimal comfort. Learning how to...

Sample Transcripts Of Futurefocused Interventions

The following are some clinical case examples of depressed patients who were treated with future-focused therapeutic interventions enhanced with hypnosis. Jessica (not her real name) was a 16-year-old high school student who was suffering from depression associated with bulimia nervosa. She lived in a dysfunctional family with a cold, rigid, withdrawn, and depressed father and an overinvolved, controlling mother. Jessica's mother saw her daughter as a narcissistic extension of herself and had very poor boundaries in her relationship with Jessica. Jessica had previously been in treatment with several counselors and one psychiatrist. A variety of treatments had been used, such as various antidepressant medications, cognitive behavior therapy, family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. However, Jessica continued to remain depressed, and her feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and futurelessness persisted and dominated her clinical presentation. When asked to...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain Management Useful Clinical Strategies

Many good examples of hypnotic pain reduction suggestions have been outlined by Hammond (1990, pp. 45-49) and Evans (2001). The emphasis of these hypnotic interventions is on the learning of mastery experiences and self-control. However, it is especially important that the patient has permission not to use these mastery techniques in all situations. For example, in a litigation case a contract can be established (usually while under hypnosis) that the pain can be controlled using hypnosis, but the patient should feel comfortable about deciding when to use these mastery techniques. The tactic of allowing the patient complete choice as to when to control pain is an important way to handle the problems associated with the exposure to psychological threat, and the removal of the pain as a defensive reaction. The thrust of the hypnotic intervention is simply to teach the patient that he she is capable of controlling pain and the related psychological issues, but...

Rumination Depression And Secondary Insomnia

It is especially significant that rumination not only features in the quality of one's depression but also actually predicts depression. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (2000, 2003) of Yale University has published enormously valuable research that establishes the link clearly A ruminative coping style that precedes depressive symptoms predicts higher levels of depressive symptoms over time (after accounting for baseline levels), onset of new depressive disorders, greater chronicity of depressive disorders, and higher levels of anxiety symptoms.

Natural Intervention And Utilization As A Treatment Model

The frequent retelling of the same story over and over again, the constant rehashing of pointless information, or even the repeating of a single word or behavior over and over again is diagnostically referred to in the autism literature as perseveration or repetitive behaviors (APA, 1994). This is a common symptom in individuals with AS, probably most often seen in a perseverative monologue on their favorite topic. This style of perseverating or repeating something over and over again may be related to a coping style associated with depression called rumination. Rumination is the repetitive loop of thinking the same distressing thoughts over and over again with no useful outcome. Rumination has been shown to be a primary predictor of depression's onset, as well influencing the quality and severity of depressive symptoms (Just & Alloy, 1997 Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991, 2000, 2003). Just as clinicians want their depressed clients to convert ruminative thoughts into constructive courses of...

Hypnosis In The Treatment Of Depression

In the past, hypnosis was viewed as a contraindicated treatment for depression for a variety of reasons Some thought that hypnosis with depressed patients might further erode their already inadequate defenses, thereby increasing the potential for suicide (Burrows, 1980). Some claimed that hypnosis was, at best, merely a method of symptom substitution and that the substituted symptoms may worsen depression (Crasilneck & Hall, 1985). Herbert and David Spiegel (1978) claimed hypnosis was likely to be harmful simply because it was unlikely to be effective with depressed clients. They were presumed to be unhypnotizable. The Spiegels suggested that clients suffering from depression cannot attend to input signals because they may be so narcissistically withdrawn and deficient of energy. Andr Weitzenhoffer, the co-creator of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales, also generally advised against the use of hypnosis with more severely depressed patients. He did, however, state that...

Corydon Hammond PhD

Erika Fromm has expressed her belief that age progression procedures are contraindicated with seriously depressed and suicidal patients. Erickson still used this method, however, with quite depressed patients. Nonetheless, I urge great caution in utilizing it with seriously depressed patients who may project themselves negatively into the future, stimulating further feelings of hopelessness. This technique may be used with couples as well as individual patients, but it is not recommended for use it with couples who are highly discouraged or teetering on the brink of divorce.

Hypnosis And Treating Comorbid Depression And Eating Disorders A Rationale

Working hypnotically with depressed patients who are also experiencing eating disorders would, on first consideration, certainly seems to be appropriate and potentially useful. After all, one could reasonably argue that hypnosis, depression, and anorexia and or bulimia all involve a common denominator of some form of altered state. All require some degree of focus and an absorption in a frame of mind that includes some awarenesses and excludes others. In fact, some hypnosis experts have made the distinction between therapeutic hypnosis and symptomatic hypnosis, suggesting that the direction of focus may differ between therapeutic and symptomatic conditions, but not necessarily the quality of the focus (Araoz, 1985, Gilligan, 1987). As Yapko (2003) described, the so-called classical hypnotic phenomena are the building blocks of experience, whether positive or negative. Thus, it has seemed logical to us to consider how hypnosis has played a role in the onset of these comorbid conditions...

The Dissolution of Time

Yet we have just observed how our internal clock runs on flextime. We bend time, in keeping with changes in our internal and external circumstances. For example, as William James had noted, we have no sense for empty time. This means we cannot tell how long an interval is if it lacks all sensible content. And depressed patients feel that time stands still, arrested in its passage. Time moves again when their depression lifts. Can these phenomena be measured Tests on humans do show that segments of time that last one or two seconds seem shorter when they are vacant, but seem longer once they are filled with clicks of sound.2

The Zen Mirror Beyond Narcissism and Depersonalization

People react differently when their perceptions of reality change on either side of the self other boundary. Most normals who still preserve insight can adjust to an alteration of their inner or outer reality set. However, when depressed patients lose their warm sense of personal subjectivity they feel that a profoundly unpleasant psychic gap has opened up. In their lack of feeling they perceive a worrisome distancing from other persons and things. It is a major loss.

Depression Pain And Ptsd

Recent advances in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) research have indicated a strong connection between emotional and physical pain (Dillard, 2002 Melzack & Wall, 1973). For example, antidepressants that increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the limbic system can also decrease chronic pain for many individuals. Pain and emotions share common nerve pathways from the periphery of the body to the spinal cord, where they are sorted for intensity and forwarded to the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans of chronic pain patients that record blood flow in the brain show simultaneous activation of two areas of the brain the sensory-motor cortex, where sensation is registered, and the limbic system, the center of emotions (Dillard, 2002). A common phenomenon that tends to elicit the dual conditions of emotional and physical pain is trauma, and the ensuing posttraumatic stress condition. Patients diagnosed with PTSD, for example, tend to have a high comorbidity incidence...

Hypnotic Age Progression Intervention Strategies

Over the many years of my clinical work with depressed patients, I have found that it is not necessary to announce to the patient that formal hypnosis has to be used in order to help them. Future-focused interventions with healing imagery suggestions can be done with what has been described in the literature as guided imagery (Acterberg, 1985 Brigham, 1994 Kroger & Fezler, 1976 Torem 1992b Zilbergeld & Lazarus, 1987). For some patients, this terminology is more acceptable and less threatening.

Staying Current for my Clients

The authors was conclusion that treatment needed to attend to both the tinnitus and the depression when present. Common challenges facing tinnitus sufferers in at least half of all cases include clinical depression (75 ), insomnia (56 ), adverse effects in lifestyle (93 ) and sexual difficulties (52 ). 9. Somatics- J. Russo, W. Katon, et. al, noted in Psychosomatics, Vol. 6, 1994, pp. 546-56, the results revealed that the number of lifetime medically unexplainable symptoms were significantly, independently, and positively related to increasing numbers of current and past anxiety and depressive disorders and the worry-pessimism and impulsiveness, subscales were positively related to the number of medically unexplained symptoms. The results suggest that somatization is associated with current and past history of psychiatric illnesses and harm avoidance in this sample of medical patients. 10. Phantom Limb Pain treatment by Dr. Milton Erickson was treated using identical...

Hypnosis And Building Realistic Expectancy

Expectancy is an especially critical issue in the treatment of major depression. Cognitive theory in particular has viewed depression as existing on a 3-point foundation of negative expectations, negative interpretation of events, and negative self-evaluation (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). An individual's negative expectancy for life experience is a cognitive pattern and risk factor that has been associated not only with difficulties in the realm of mood but also in poorer physical health, poorer social adjustment, and diminished productivity. Furthermore, negative expectancy has been associated to lowered treatment success rates (Seligman, 1989, 1990). At the extreme, negative expectancy in the form of a pervasive sense of hopelessness can be associated with suicidality (Beck et al., 1979 Beck, Brown, Berchick, Stewart, & Steer, 1990). Establishing positive expectancy in a variety of specific contexts may be a necessary ingredient in effective treatment (Yapko, 1988, 1992,...

Cognitive Behavior and Interpersonal Therapies

Studies have consistently found support for Beck's (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression. Research has shown that CBT is at least as effective as antidepressant medication (Elkin et al., 1989 Hollon et al., 1992 Rush, Beck, Kovacs, & Hollon, 1977 Simons, Murphy, Levine, & Wetzel, 1986), and more effective than a placebo in treating atypical depression (Jarrett et al., 1999). Up to 70 of patients initially diagnosed as suffering from major depression no longer satisfy the criteria for depression after participating in a course of CBT (Craighead, Hart, Craighead, & Ilardi, 2002). An important bonus of CBT is that it reduces relapse rates relative to antidepres-sant medications (Hollon, Shelton, & Loosen, 1991). In contrast with CBT, interpersonal therapy (IPT Klerman, Weissman, Roun-saville, & Chevron, 1984) addresses conflicts and problems in interpersonal relationships, rather than distorted cognitions, and targets the areas...

About the Editor

Yapko is the author of numerous books, book chapters, and articles on the subjects of hypnosis, depression, and the use of strategic psychotherapies. These include Trancework (3rd edition), Treating Depression with Hypnosis, Breaking the Patterns of Depression, Hand-Me-Down Blues How to Stop Depression from Spreading in Families, and Hypnosis and the Treatment of Depressions. Dr. Yapko is a member of the American Psychological Association, a clinical member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, a past fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine's Division of Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine (in England), a member of the International Society of Hypnosis, and a fellow of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. He is a recipient of the Milton H. Erickson Award of Scientific Excellence for Writing in Hypnosis, the Arthur Shapiro Award for the best book of the year on hypnosis from the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (for Treating Depression...

Training In Hypnosis

Major depression remains a challenge to all treatment modalities, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behaviour therapy, and psychotherapy. The traditional prejudice against its use in depression has prevented a serious assessment of whether hypnosis has anything significant to contribute to this widespread disabling

Overview

The primary purposes of this chapter are twofold first, to highlight some of what we already know about the nature of major depression (i.e., major depressive disorder) and what works in its treatment and, second, to draw attention to how clinical hypnosis can further enhance aspects of the treatment process. This chapter considers hypnosis as part of a psychotherapy regimen for major depression only, and does not address either medication issues or other forms of depression (such as bipolar disorder, depressed phase), although concepts and techniques might apply to dysthymic disorder, an enduring depression, as well. When psychotherapy is clinically indicated, whether in combination with antidepressant medications or as a sole intervention, hypnosis may sometimes be deemed an appropriate means for facilitating the therapeutic goals. Given the reach of depression into our pockets, our personal relationships, our communities, and our very lives, addressing this complex disorder in a...

Use a Timer

When doctors prescribe antidepressant medication, they follow the principle Start low and go slow. You begin with a low dose to see how it is tolerated, monitoring for troublesome side effects. Then you gradually increase the dose. Similarly, in our program, we have you gradually increase the length of your meditation time.

Rumination

Rumination is associated with more depressive symptoms, longer depressive episodes, and more vulnerability to relapse (Lyubomirsky & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1995 Street, 2000). In one relevant study, people who displayed this ruminative style rated highest on depression scales following a natural disaster, such as an earthquake (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). It is tempting to think that going over and over an unresolved issue will eventually provide us with a better understanding and, thus, help us to solve the problem. However, the reverse seems to be true (Lyubomirsky & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1995). Rumination can be counterproductive, actually reducing a person's ability to effectively solve problems. Segal, Williams, and Teasdale (2002) stated this clearly when they said, In fact, in this state of mind, repeatedly 'thinking about' negative aspects of the self, or of problematic situations, serves to perpetuate rather than resolve depression ( p. 36).

Suicide Risk

It has been argued that the risk of suicide makes the use of hypnosis dangerous in the management of depression. Crasilneck & Hall (1985) argue that hypnosis is inappropriately used in an outpatient setting for this reason. The potential for increased suicide risk has been explained in a number of ways. Burrows (1980) argues that hypnosis may inappropriately relieve anxiety before depressive affect has significantly lifted, allowing the depressed individual sufficient energy and anxiety reduction to act on suicidal impulses. Crasilneck & Hall (1985) observe that this phenomenon is not confined to hypnosis but has also been described for the range of treatment methods including psychotherapy, antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy (p. 323). The evidence to support this proposal is primarily in the form of clinical case material, making it difficult to counter the criticism that, given the significant rate of suicide in patients with major depression, such case...

Current Issues

Depression, it is necessary to look more broadly at the wider research on depression and consider the ways in which hypnotic techniques may augment clinical approaches to the management of depression. The National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Programme (TDCRP Elkin, Parloff, Hadley & Autry, 1985) with its analysis and follow-up of 250 unipolar depressed outpatients at three different sites, randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions (cognitive-behaviour therapy, imipramine plus clinical management, interpersonal psychotherapy and a pill-placebo control), contributes significantly to the current body of knowledge. The findings of this research and the ongoing debate (see, for example, Jacobson & Hollon, 1996) raise numerous significant issues for the area. As Shea, Elkin, Imber et al. (1992) point out, none of the treatments perform well in their capacity to promote lasting recovery. Major depression remains a challenge for...

Serotonin Systems

Recently, seventeen healthy human subjects were studied 2 hours after receiving citalopram (20 mg) or a placebo. Their visual evoked potentials showed intriguing, mixed responses. The drug weakened the degree of electrophysiological activation to unpleasant visual stimuli in the frontal and occipital regions. However, it enhanced the amplitude of the evoked responses to pleasant images in the parietal and occipital regions. Clearly, this SSRI drug could modulate the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. In contrast, the subjects' own reports did not indicate that they were aware of having experienced corresponding emotional changes.22 When depressed patients receive SSRI drugs, it may take several weeks for beneficial effects on mood to be evident. This long delay suggests that slow, metabolic messengers are being influenced beyond the initial ST receptor sites. Chapter 37 discusses how important these ''second messenger'' mechanisms are in changing brain functions.

Depression

Bereavement is an intense grief response after a major loss (e.g. death of parent) and is usually a normal reaction involving mood and sleep or appetite changes. When bereavement symptoms persist for longer than 2 months or are characterized by marked functional impairment, morbid preoccupation with worthlessness or suicidal ideation, major depressive disorder can be diagnosed. (p.153) There is no one single characteristic that defines depression, nor is there one single cause. There are many risk factors, some biological, some social, and some psychological, that can influence the onset and course of depressive episodes. Risk factors for childhood depression include depressed parents, strong family history of depression, early onset of a diagnosable anxiety disorder, alcoholism, family and marital discord, substance abuse, early childhood losses, poor coping skills, lack of social support, uncertainty about sexual orientation, and a history of previous depressive episodes (Wolraich,...

Insomnia

Interventions currently in use for treating depression-related insomnia fall into two general categories medications (pharmacologic) and psychotherapy. These are not mutually exclusive treatments, and so-called combined treatments are common. There are four main categories of pharmacologic intervention for depressed individuals with insomnia single antidepressant medication (monotherapy) approaches, the use of two antidepressants, the use of a single antidepressant with either a hypnotic or antianxiety (anxiolytic) drug, or two antidepressants in combination with a hypnotic. The use of two antidepressants has become more common and usually features a sedating tricyclic antidepressant (such as trazodone) in combination with a less sedating SSRI. Hypnotics or anxiolytics alone may sometimes be used on a short-term basis however, in the longer term, these have been associated with either worsening depression or a new depressive episode onset (Sussman, 1998). Two antidepressants and a...

Asd And Depression

Martin Seligman's cognitively based learned helplessness and attributional-style models of depression (Seligman, 1974, 1989, 1990) have recently been studied in adolescents with AS (Barnhill & Smith-Myles, 2001). There is evidence that the more AS adolescents experienced depressive symptoms, the more likely they were to explain negative events with internal, stable, and global attributions. This finding is consistent with the general population of depression sufferers, who also typically blame themselves when there is a negative event (internal attribution) and who also believe it is an unchangeable outcome (stable attribution) that affects all similar situations or contexts (global attribution) (Seligman, 1989, 1990 M. Yapko, 1992, 1997, 2001b). There is substantial clinical support for the use of hypnosis in treating depression, as the expert authors of the chapters in this volume will attest. However, The language used in the treatment literature on autism and AS is quite...

The Bigger Picture

Every epidemiological survey, whether national or international, indicates depression is on the rise around the world (Yapko, 1997, 1999). In the United States, depression receives a great deal of attention for all its negative effects on health, productivity, and relationships. However, the lion's share of research funding goes to exclusively biological interventions, a direct suggestion that medications or some other biological entity will alleviate depression. The evidence is irrefutable, however, that much of what spreads depression around the world, between and within cultures (including ours), are social factors. What people learn (and don't learn) in their evolving patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior how active and skillful they learn to be in problem solving and in building healthy relationships how self-absorbed or selfless they are encouraged to be and so many other such value-laden factors evident in one's socialization can all serve to increase or decrease one's...

Case History

A middle-aged man presented to the pain clinic with a 10-year history of intractable burning and itching pain affecting the area of the face supplied by the infra-orbital nerve, following an episode of Herpes Zoster some 10 years previously. His pain was of such severity he was passively suicidal and he had been unable to touch his left cheek for many years. After he was placed on antidepressants his distress was reduced and three sessions of hypnosis using glove anaesthesia enabled him for the first time to control his pain. The imagery technique involved taking him back to his European childhood and asking him to imagine that he was holding a snowball against the affected area of his face.

James R Hodge MD

Carefully by experienced therapists in working with depressed patients (e.g., Terman, 1980 Waxman, 1978) or in manic-depressive illness (Brown & Fromm, 1986) because the severity of depression may be exacerbated through uncovering of emotion-laden material. Nonetheless, in skilled hands and with patients who are depressed but not severely so, hypnosis may facilitate a rapid uncovering of vitally important etiologic factors.

Process

Unavoidable opportunities to target some depressive symptoms, particularly when working on social skills training. A sample transcript from a hypnosis session for enhancing social skills is provided below in order to illustrate how salient suggestions might be worded in working with an individual diagnosed with AS.

Clinical Accounts

Concerns about the potential for the use of hypnosis to encourage the acting out of suicidal ideas in the depressed patient have been expressed by many clinicians and researchers. Cheek and Le Cron (1968) warned against the use of hypnosis with depressed patients. Similarly, Spiegel and Spiegel (1978), Miller (1979), Burrows (1980), Crasilneck and Hall (1985) and Watkins (1987) expressed the same concerns about the potential for hypnotically based treatments encouraging

The Case Of Julia

In the case of Julia, we chose to focus on her innate talents as a hypnotic subject rather than spending a great deal of time in seeking the why of her behavior. It was obviously more important to get an empowering behavioral change than to ferret out the cause of the behavior. Furthermore, the helplessness typical of depressed patients is a primary target for intervention, because encouraging a sense of personal efficacy is a primary ingredient of recovery (Sacco & Beck, 1995 Seligman, 1993). As is typical of depressed patients, Julia was steeped in a sense of helplessness (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978). We wanted to address this issue early on. The following is a partial transcript of one of Julia's hypnotic sessions. It occurred in the 14th session and was offered as a means to address her fasting behavior and her associations to fasting as evidence of control. The reader can note the use of key phrases, which are highlighted and meant to catalyze the desired...

Irving Kirsch

Why should SSRIs increase the risk of suicide only in children In fact, the data suggest that the risk is much wider. A meta-analysis of the clinical trial data in adults reveals that patients given SSRIs are five times more likely to commit suicide than those given placebo (Healy, 2003). Furthermore, the increased risk of suicide is seen for each of the antidepressant medications evaluated (sertraline, paroxetine, nefazodone, mirtazapine, bupropion, citalo-pram, and fluoxetine). I began working in this area not because of any interest in evaluating the effects of antidepressants, but because of my long-standing interest in the effects of response expectancy (Kirsch, 1985). Response expectancies are anticipations of automatic subjective reactions, such as changes in depression, anxiety, pain, and so on. I have argued that response expectancies are self-confirming. The world in which we live is ambiguous, and one of the functions of the brain is to disambiguate it rapidly enough to...

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