Indirect Generalization of Hypnotic Effects by Implication Shifting from the Known to the Unknown Facilitating

E By sensing your hand or your forearms or your neck or your thighs or your calves, by paying attention to first one part and then another part of your body. And last of all, Pause feel the comfort in your head. Pause And feel the sense of being rested. Now in learning hypnosis it is not important to know what you have learned. Pause What is important is the acquisition of the knowledge, and having it ready to utilize when the proper stimulus conies. E I previously emphasized hand levitation...

Learning Indirect Communication Frames of Reference Metalevels and Psychotherapy

E When I first began the study of hypnosis, I wondered greatly about verbal technique. You take a subject in the present time, and you're offering him ideas that are to affect his future. You're also to distract his mind from the present. And you're to take his mind away from surrounding reality and direct it to his inner world of experience. One of my first questions was, How do you move the patient's attention away from the immediate present and the immediate reality to the future and to...

Trance Induction Catalepsy to Heighten Responsiveness

In inducing a trance in your psychiatric patient or, for that matter, any patient, it is the fashion in which you present the suggestion to the patient that is important. For example, some of you have seen me demonstrate the proper way to take hold of a patient's wrist. Too often, a doctor will grab hold of a wrist and lift it up forcibly. But when I lift someone's hand, I purposely do so in a very, very gentle fashion so that there is just a suggestion that I am lifting the arm, and just a...

Facilitating Ideomotor Signaling

The senior author's review of his gradual discovery of ideomotor signaling provides a fine introduction for learning how to facilitate it in the clinical situation (Erickson, 1961) During that summer of 1923, among other things, the writer became interested in automatic writing, first secured from subjects in a trance state and subsequently by posthypnotic suggestion. This gave rise to the possibility of using suggestions conducive to automatic writing as an indirect technique of trance...

Facilitating Catalepsy

Catalepsy is facilitated by any procedure that (1) arrests attention and (2) leads to progressive body immobility with (3) an inner attitude of inquiry, receptivity, and expectancy of further directing stimuli from the therapist. The receptivity that allows a part of the body to become immobilized reflects a corresponding mental receptivity to the therapist's further suggestions. Catalepsy thus becomes a major means for facilitating and gauging a patient's state of mental receptivity for...

Uncovering Unconscious Material

Ideomotor signaling can be used as a procedure for uncovering unconscious material in a much shorter time than the traditional psychoanalytic approaches. An early illustration was provided by Erickson in his Informal Meetings with Medical Students (1945). Upon recognizing the presence of covert hostility in Mrs. W, Erickson proceeded to use both ideomotor signaling and automatic writing to help her recognize it. This example is particularly instructive because he begins by working with two...

Hypnosis as Loss of Multiple Foci of Attention Maintaining the Absorption of Trance The Role of Poetry and Rhyme

E But you formed mental images, and later you formed mental images of words, of faces, of places, of objects, of a great many mental images. R Thus far there is no question of an altered state of consciousness or trance it is just a shift of his focus of awareness. E The shift of the focus of awareness. R Where now does the altered state of consciousness come in Do we need the concept of an altered state of consciousness or is it just a shift in the focus of awareness that is involved Maybe...

Recognizing Spontaneous Ideomotor Signaling

We have reviewed how the senior author's early observations of naturalistic ideomotor signaling provided a foundation for his later development of head and hand signaling in hypnotic work. His observations of animals as a boy on the farm led to the formation of a mental set for detecting nonverbal forms of signaling behavior in his early experimental subjects in Hull's laboratory, in his students sitting in a classroom, and finally in his patients in therapy. If we now outline the general...

Nonverbal Trance Induction as a Conditioned Response

R Tell me another approach you've used. E Erickson illustrates silently by adjusting his telephone. In other words, any little acceptable thing can become a subtle cue. R You can set up a conditioned response by doing something, any inconsequential thing just before you induce trance. Their consciousness does not associate it with the trance induction that follows since it is such a casual thing, but it nonetheless serves as a conditioned cue for their unconscious. E Erickson illustrates...

Catalepsy in Hypnotic Induction and Therapy

Catalepsy, the suspension of voluntary movement, is generally recognized as one of the most characteristic phenomena of trance and hypnosis. Because its significance and meaning have changed over the generations, we will begin this section with an overview of catalepsy in historical perspective. Since we regard all hypnotic phenomena as aspects or derivatives of normal behavior, we will then outline some of the spontaneous forms of catalepsy we can observe in everyday life. When these...

Measuring Trance Depth

The concept of trance depth has been a controversial matter in the history of hypnosis. Our modern utilization theory would define depth as the state of concentration or absorption in relevant associations and mental processes that allows the subject to experience a particular phenomenon of interest. Depth may thus be understood as readiness to respond in a particular way rather than as a generalized readiness to experience any hypnotic phenomena. The notion of a generalized readiness to...

Contents

The Indirect Approaches to Hypnosis a. Hypnosis in Psychiatry The Ocean Monarch Lecture b. Utilization Approaches to Indirect Communication 1. Language and the Art of Suggestion 2. Multiple Levels of Communication in Hypnosis 3. Internal Responses as the Essence of Suggestion 4. Indirect Communication in the Ocean Monarch Lecture II. Catalepsy in Hypnotic Induction and Therapy a. Catalepsy in Historical Perspective b. Recognizing Spontaneous Catalepsy Demonstration in the Use of Catalepsy in...

Implied Directive to Reinforce Hypnotic Learning

E When your right hand is off, you will have learned a great deal about hypnosis. R Here you subtly capitalize on her eagerness and motivation to learn hypnosis by saying she will have learned a great deal when her right hand has lifted. This is a form of the implied directive that reinforces a covert internal state of learning. Some learning certainly will have taken place by the time her hand does lift off her dress not much, but some and however little it is, it will be strongly reinforced...

Multiple Levels of Communication in Hypnosis

E From my childhood on, I practiced talking on two or three levels. I could be talking to some playmates, and one playmate thought I was talking about the dog, another thought I was talking about a kite, and another thought I was talking about a football. R You were always dabbling in multiple levels of communication E That's right now it becomes automatic when I do hypnotic work. Therapeutic trance enables patients to receive multiple levels of communication more easily. R Can you provide any...

Chevreul and the Ideomotor Movement Theories of Hypnosis in the 1800s

The first phase, wherein ideomotor and ideosensory responses were taken as a manifestation of special powers, began in ancient times and ended only tentatively in 1854, when Chevreul published his experimental critique of the exploratory pendulum and divination devices. In this critique he provided a correct interpretation of ideomotor movements as minute muscle responses set in motion by the unrecognized thoughts of the subject. We say that this first phase ended only tentatively because even...

Posthypnotic Suggestion initiating the Microdynamics of Trance Induction Therapists Behavior in Focusing Attention for

Q There is a lot going on at all times. E Much more than you can see, and you have no time for anxiety. Dr. Q I think my anxiety is because I feel so blind in the situation where there is so much data coming at me that I can't understand it. E And everybody learns to count. First they count up to one. Then they count up to two, and five, and 10 and 20. Dr. Q Hummm. Dr. Q blinks uncertainly and then closes his eyes. He begins to raise a hand toward his face, as if to scratch his nose, but...

An Audiovisual Demonstration Of Ideomotor Movements And Catalepsy The Reverse Set To Facilitate Hypnotic Induction

In 1958 the senior author gave Ernest Hilgard and Jay Haley a demonstration in hypnotic induction at Stanford University. A videotape or 16mm film of this demonstration is available from the publisher Irvington Press, 551 Fifth Ave., New York, New York, 10017 . Although both the visual and auditory qualities of this old record are poor, it is nonetheless the best visual record we have of the senior author's uses of a variety of nonverbal approaches to catalepsy and an unusually complex form of...

Hypnosis In Psychiatry The Ocean Monarch Lecture

This lecture is an unusually clear and succinct presentation of the senior author's approach to hypnotic induction and hypnotherapy. Given at the height of his teaching career, it represents an important shift away from the authoritarian methods of the past to his pioneering work with the more permissive and insightful approaches characteristic of our current era. In the actual words of this presentation we can witness how important concepts are in transition. While Erickson still uses the...

Dfacilitating Ideosensory Signaling

Ideosensory responses constitute a unique signaling system that can be utilized in interesting ways. They can appear in any part of the body and can be experienced in a number of different forms warmth, coolness, pressure, tingling, prickliness, itch, etc. Ideosensory signaling can be used by the patient for self-knowledge, but by its very nature this signaling does not communicate to the therapist. Thus, ideomotor signaling can be of distinct advantage when patients want to explore something...

Catalepsy In Historical Perspective

Historically, catalepsy was regarded as one of the earliest defining characteristics of trance. Esdaile 1850 1957 used mesmeric passes to achieve a state of catalepsy wherein patients were able to experience surgical anesthesia as follows I usually proceed in the following manner, and am inclined to think that its comparative rarity in Europe is owing to the mesmeric influence not being at once sufficiently concentrated on the patient, by transmitting it to his brain from all the organs of the...