Defining Hypnosis

Since there is no single well accepted theory of hypnosis, the trick is to make he definition as theory neutral as possible, descriptive and not implicitly xplanatory. Yet even the description is sometimes controversial. One thing hat has become known for certain is that hypnosis is only interesting from a phenomenal perspective. The subjective experience of hypnotized people is what is special about hypnosis, not any identifiable objective measurements. If there are any objective behavioral...

By Todd I Stark

Edited Overviews of General Theories of Hypnosis (5 entries) 3. Specific Topics Related to Research into Hypnosis. 1. General single-author overviews, non-special-state views, social andexperimental views (10 entries) 2. On state-specific theories, dissociation, and multiple personality (22entries) 3. The Communications Perspective Milton Erickson, Neurolinguistic Programming, etc (6 entries) 4. Hypnosis, volition, mind control, abuse of hypnosis. Also legal...

Three stages of building a new identity

Personality change was modeled by Kurt Lewin as a three stage process unfreezing the current worldview, changing the worldview, and refreezing the new worldview (Schein, 1961). The first stage involves reducing our alertness and forcing on us various kinds of sensory or information overload, confusion, or distraction. This builds a tremendous psychological and physiological tension that needs to be eleased. This is roughly analogous to the first step in a stage hypnosis nduction, creating...

The potential role of hypnosis in dramatic personality change in an isolated group

N order to help understand the complex relationship between hypnosis and potential mind control, I have included this section as a composite of various views of how dramatic personality change occurs from psychological orces. It should be noted that the principles of personality change are basically the same, whether we are talking about forced indoctrination brainwashing) or psychotherapy. The attitude and ethics of the people attempting the change are the primary difference. The primary...

Highly extraordinary experiences

3ut of the range of what most people think of as usual human experiences. For he present discussion, we might divide these extraordinary experience into hree overlapping types 1. Experiences which seem extraordinary because what is remembered (while under hypnosis) as having previously happened seems to defy commonly accepted canons of plausibility, such as the controversial UFO abduction phenomenon, 2. Experiences which, perceived as happening during hypnosis, seem to defy commonly accepted...

Evil Hypnosislcredits by Todd I Stark

Evil hypnosis is what I call the popular view of hypnosis as something that s used by devious agencies or individuals to control people's minds urreptitiously. Mind control or behavior control are possible with hypnosis only temporarily, and only to a similar degree as with other forms of psychotherapy. Roughly the same forces of influence apply in and out of hypnosis. Individual differences and personal psychological needs are much more important in determining our capacity to be lastingly...

Can I be forced to do horrible things under hypnosis

However, if you are comfortable ooperating with a fantasy about something you would normally find horrible, you might act it out under hypnosis, or under posthypnotic uggestion. In the same sense that we might do something unusual and then ater blame alcohol, even if we didn't drink enough to actually lose control, we might also blame hypnosis for our loss of inhibitions. Even under deep hypnosis, under the influence of a dramatic fantasy role, we are still in...

Trance descriptive or misleading

Most of the classical notions of hypnosis have long held that hypnosis was special in some way from other types of interpersonal communication and that an induction (preparatory process considered by some to be neccessary in he production of hypnotic phenomena) would lead to a state in which the ubject's awareness and behavioral responding was some how altered from he usual. The name historically most commonly associated with this altered state of unctioning is 'trance,' a term shared by the...

What else is like hypnosis

There are basically three varieties of things that are commonly called hypnosis or compared to hypnosis 1. Formal hypnosis, which includes relaxation and the use of suggestion, 2. Self hypnosis (suggestions are provided mentally and silently, or provided on a previously made tape) 3. Alert hypnosis (there is no relaxation component) Common examples of how these processes are used include Hypnotherapy Psychotherapy which emphasizes the use of hypnosis. Medical hypnosis Used as an adjunct to...

Bizarre remembrances under hypnosis

The veracity of events recalled under hypnosis is considered by most experts today to be problematic to determine. Hypnosis facilitates the recall of details in good subjects, and also facilitates the manufacture of details during recall hat were not neccessarily present previously. This in fact is characteristic of ecall in general, which has been demonstrated to be far from a permanent nd unchanging record, but more a dynamic and adaptive process a shape-hifting moire pattern of sorts,...

Psychic phenomena under hypnosis

There are a number of links between the sorts of situations commonly ssociated with hypnosis, and the experience of what are often called 'psychic phenomena,' (herein primarily meaning apparent extrasensory perceptions, nd psychokinesis, but also such related experiences as apparitions mediumistic phenomena, and such strange occurrances as the apparent uspension of death). psychology, and modern parapsychology, and the study of 'psychic phenomena' in general. The reason for quoting that term...

Science and the Arts of Hypnosis

Hypnosis today is often considered from two different perspectives the sciences used to study how it works, and the arts used to make use of it for specific purposes. These are such very different perspectives for two main reasons. First, there is the schism between the academic and the clinical subcultures that is found in many fields of psychology. Second, there is the particularly wide gap between hypnosis practice and academic psychology because of the periods when hypnosis was considered...

What is Hypnosis Icredits by Todd I Stark

Hypnosis refers to just about any situation where we respond to verbal suggestions in a particular special way. This involves a mentally very flexible condition where our imagination and fantasy are more free and more vivid. A series of instructions, called an induction, is the most common way to do this. Just about any situation where we relax and allow ourselves to become bsorbed in something can lead to the appropriate conditions for hypnosis. These conditions also sometimes occur without...

Posthypnotic suggestion and amnesia

Amnesia (basically selective forgetting in this case) sometimes occurs pontaneously in hypnosis, and sometimes happens as the result of a direct or indirect suggestion to forget something. The amnesia effect may last a variable time, possibly months or longer, depending on the psychological ignificance of the amnesia and the forgotten material and on the intensity of ttempts to recall and availability of recall cues in the environment. A posthypnotic suggestion in general is a response to...

Immune Response

t has long been supposed (and in recent years demonstrated experimentally) hat emotions and psychological state somehow have an effect on human mmune response, but even though detailed mechanisms and the limits of this sffect have not been well understood in modern medical science. A recent article in Science News, Sept. 4,1993, pp. 153, describes 'the first solid vidence that hypnosis can modify the immune system far more than relaxation alone. The report concerns the research of Patricia...

Conscious vs Unconscious

s there actually an 'unconscious mind' in some sense And if so, does texplain certain kinds of response to hypnotic suggestion First, it is very likely that information is actually processed, at least under ertain conditions, outside of conscious awareness, and that it can influence behavior. A modern look at this old topic can be found inKihlstrom's 1987 Science article, The Cognitive Unconscious, 237,1445-1452. This is not to say that any particular 'subliminal learning'claims have support...

Stupor

Think we can fairly conclude from the research on hypnosis done so far that trance' may in fact have useful meaning for describing the subjective xperience of subjects in hypnotic situations, but is not explained, or even described, by any one simple theory yet proposed, either neurological or psychological. All of the current theories seem to leave aspects unexplained. Clearly, selective cerebral inhibition and activation of some kind is involved truly is distinct in some way, as subjective...

Can I be brainwashed to change my beliefs and attitudes under hypnosis

To the extent that this happens outside of hypnosis, it can also happen with he help of hypnosis. Hypnosis isn't generally the critical factor in this kind of hange, it is at best a catalyst in the process. A possible interpretation of such process will be described below. The general drift is that hypnosis itself is not neccessarily used in this process, but that total and complete control of the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual environment permit the use of omething resembling...

Is the hypnotist in control of me

The exact nature of what we experience as 'will' or volition is anage-old philosophical problem that has yet to be resolved by brain scientistsor psychologists. Some aspects of hypnotic responding point out weaknesses in our understanding of the nature of volition, such as its exact relationship to onsciousawareness the capacity and limitations of external stimulii (such as'suggestion') to influence our sensory experience and behavior and hedetails of the patterns by which specific...

Can I be hypnotized without my knowledge

Yes, we can be in trance without realizing it. Our consciousness shifts onstantly, most of the time without any recognition on our part that anything s changing. Certainly we can drift in and out of absorption without realizing t, and a skillful hypnotist may well be able to perform an induction that doesn't seem at all like an induction. Some of the usual elements of hypnosis would be missing, such as the elaborate set of expectations that are normally provided by the patter of an induction....