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The Elements of Memory

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The Neuroanatomy of Nitric Oxide Systems

Antibodies prepared against this NO' synthase bind to the local sites where this enzyme produces its NO'. In the human brain, two clusters of nerve cells show intense local staining for this enzyme.3 An intriguing fact both clusters also make acetylcholine. These two cholinergic nuclei in the dorsolateral pons are the pedun-culopontine tegmental nucleus and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (see chapter 24) Z 165 . The oral pontine nucleus (a source for theta activities) is also heavily stained (see chapter 29).

Do you believe that a meaningful distinction exists between the mind and brain

Brain and mind are different topics. However, I can hold a human brain in my hand and feel its weight. And I can also count, almost as real, that feeling of mental cobwebs that arises whenever too heavy a burden of thoughts weighs on my mind.'' As a neurobiologist, I'm led to believe that our human brain is the organ of our mind. Indeed, before brains came to exist on this planet, there were no minds either. I also begin with the humanist bias and imperative. I'm immensely awed by the creative forces in the current universe. I just

Some ABCs ofthe IMeMine

The three components interlock in a tight complex, each complementing the other. To keep the discussion simple, we may call this descriptive psychological construct the I-Me-Mine. No neuroanatomy or physiology textbook can localize all the nerve cells and circuitries which make up this emergent, widely distributed complex. But introspect for a long moment. Consider its premises, as outlined below in table 3. Then you may begin to appreciate the presence of a few of its negative and positive features in your everyday life experiences.

Where Does Zen Think Its Coming From

Nervous systems arrived late on planet Earth. Only recently did the human brain evolve its many striking conscious properties. None of its convoluted sensibilities, and no part of any of the rest of the whole universe is extrinsic to the scope of Zen. So, in its larger universal context, Zen embraces all of life's natural dimensions. One of them is the sentient, experiential dimension.

Brain Waves and Their Limitations

During our experiments in Kyoto, we monitored brain waves arising from the cat brain. It is an old technique. In 1929, Hans Berger coined the term electroencephalogram to describe the recording of the human brain's spontaneous electrical potentials. Since then, electrodes attached to the scalp or to the coverings of the brain have been used to follow, mostly at a distance, the electrical activity of the brain beneath.

Mental and Physical Poles

Science has discovered that the human brain, in the processes of thinking, actually generates and uses up a certain amount of energy in the area of the brain tissue. The generation and employment of this energy produces heat, and actually increases the temperature of the brain areas, as may be proven by the use of the delicate registering instruments. Found in every well-equipped brain is as much an actual force as is electricity or the ordinary magnetism of the lodestone, and is governed by much the same general laws and rules. And, like electricity or ordinary magnetism, it is not confined to the point at which it is generated, but, instead, it may be, and is, diffused to points beyond. In other words, the thought energy of the brain of a person extends beyond the limits of his brain, creates a thought-atmosphere around him, and registers an effect upon the brains of others coming within his field of energy. matter, notably in the case of radium, has led science to investigate the...

Brain in Overview The Large of It

Must one learn strange words like zazen Can one remember everything about the frontal lobe No. But this is the way Zen is. And if you're anything like me, you'll become fascinated by the latest discoveries about the human brain, the center of our being. How do its different regions function, individually and in concert We begin to answer this question in part III, always heeding Pavlov's advice first, become familiar with the groundwork of neuroscience, the better later to climb its heights.

Brain in Overview The Small of It

Does a human brain have enough nerve cells to allow it to do all its work Anatomists come up with different estimates every year or so. Some years the optimists estimate as many as a trillion. In other years, the conservatives say that the brain holds only 300 billion nerve cells. The latter figure is still about the same number of neurons as there are stars in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. To begin to bring such abstract numbers down to earth, it may help to recall that each earthling now shares the planet with over five billion other people. Already, the number seems unmanageable. Still, we have only to reflect back to the example of our English alphabet. Although limited to a mere 26 letters, these letters can still be arranged in groups which will express all the works of Shakespeare aided, of course, by suitable pauses, punctuations, and capitalizations.

Function Of Creative Approach To Problems

Creativity as a term basically carries a much broader connotation than it is usually defined. Among others, it includes significant changes in human behavior, and communication and contacting other people, environment, nature, animals, and plants. One can reach a fully developed creativity when one loses a negative and repulsive attitude towards one's environment and creativity, first by being indifferent to it and then attaining a creative attitude. In this manner, a person whose creative function of the aura has been fully activated will become very lively ,interested in whatever is going on around him her, and would be very active in order to construct creative changes in its surroundings. The creative function is realized through a fine capillary network, which fills almost all of the aura. Its influence can be seen in the wish of the human brain to activate and discharge knowledge particles form the tips of capillaries on knowledge roots in

The Septum and Pleasure

For a sample at least, one must turn to the report of Heath and his group at Tulane. They described the symptoms reported by fifty-four patients whose septal region was being stimulated.19 The stimulations consistently induced a pleasurable response. They also immediately relieved the severe intractable pain and anguish associated with advanced cancer. Stimulations were repeated twice a day, or once every three days, for a lengthy period. They left the patients relaxing in comfort and pleasure. And there were other important findings increased alertness and attentiveness enhanced abilities to calculate acceleration in all movements, including speech and rapid shifts from depression to optimism. Moreover, these changes persisted for minutes after the stimulation ended.10 However unconventional were some of the other procedures cited below, these early observations are worth noting, given that we are searching for the sources that enhance the functions of the human brain and relieve...

The Attachments of the Cingulate Gyms

Throughout this book, our quest will be to discover how the human brain creates and relieves its self-inflicted sorrows and sufferings. Drug addiction affords one striking example of the way attachments generate anguish. No bondage exceeds being enthralled by drugs. Few lusts, few cravings drive behavior as intensely as do those that afflict the addict. The addictions to morphine and me-peridine (Demerol) are well-known examples. Addicts who abruptly stop their drug habit suffer a severe cold-turkey withdrawal. Remarkably, their symptoms and signs can be relieved surgically. The procedure interrupts both cingulum bundles.7 Each lesion is small the size of a large pea.

Remembrances and the Hippocampus

We humans relegate our small hippocampus to the innermost part of the temporal lobe. Here, a long fold, the parahippocampal gyrus, rolls up into the larger hippocampal formation (see figure 3). This hippocampal formation includes the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus itself, the subiculum, and the entorhinal cortex. Evolution carved their intricate neuroanatomy as though they were made of clay. Useful parts were added to, other portions shaved away. In the small mouse brain, the hippocampus remains so large that its upper and lower divisions make up 45 percent of the cortex. However, in humans, the hippocampus occupies less than I percent of the volume of the cortex.3 Even our immediate primate relatives use different transmitters within the dentate gyrus in strikingly different ways.4 These facts invite caution whenever we use findings from animal research to speculate about how the human hippocampal region functions. We not only don't think like Peter Rabbit or Bambi, we can't even be...

Visceral Drives and the Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus, weighing in at only four grams, might seem to be a trifling flyweight in any contest with a heavy human brain weighing 1400 grams.3 But it rivals the newer computer chips in its complexity. And, like the old Ponte Vecchio which bridges the Arno river in Florence, the hypothalamus serves two kinds of functions. It carries on essential local business and housekeeping activities in its own bustling side compartments. At the same time, it acts as a bridge that conducts a two-way traffic, and carries enough exotic raw materials to stimulate a kind of renaissance on both sides.

Cortical Anatomy by the Numbers

There are, indeed, few textbooks of neurology, neurophysiology or neuroanatomy in which Brodmann is not cited, and his concepts pervade most research publications on systematic neurobiology. In the next chapters we consider how the current human brain has evolved and continues to refine these questions.

Alexander A Levitan MD

Erly into the vein when the IV is set. Let the vein and the skin wrap themselves tightly around the needle so that there will be no chance of any leakage, there will be no black and blue marks, no bleeding, and certainly no discomfort. That's fine. Just let that happen. OK. And when you're ready, let us know by raising the finger and we will set the IV. There is no need to confine suggestions to anatomically or physiologically known functions. The mind has influence far beyond what we can accurately describe and explain. Glove anesthesia does not correlate with neuroanatomy and neither need these suggestions.

Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) captures the ongoing, serial changes in electromagnetic signals that arise when different brain regions become activated. Multiple sensors outside the head detect the weak magnetic fields from these physiological currents. Computers then transform these signals into images referable to brain anatomy. A signal's most likely source can be estimated (with the aid of other computerized techniques) often more accurately than is possible using current EEG methods. However, signals from deeper brain regions still remain beyond the capacities of MEG and EEG to localize.

What Should I Do About It The Frontal Lobes

Are these two processes incongruous If so, their functions still come together in the prefrontal cortex. Long ago, to paraphrase the well-known soliloquy, many of its basic missions might have been summed up as to do or not to do Evolution then transformed its convolutions into the most distinguishing feature of the human brain. What was added And how did it enable us now not only to socialize our instinctual drives but to go on to solve practical matters intelligently Tap the knee tendon the patient's leg jerks forward. Knee jerks spring from simpler circuits at lower, reflexive levels. Here, stimulus is rigidly time-locked to response. But up higher, among the networks of the prefrontal cortex, are circuits which engage the underlying caudate nuclei in very sophisticated levels of integration. In its higher-order functions, the mature human brain can blend three kinds of operations. First, of course, is that key element of will. The other two functions are judgment and foresight....

Do Subtle Event Related Changes Occur at a Distance

This chapter invited the notion that functional MRI, EEG, and event-related potential techniques provide useful factual data about brain physiology even though the human brain is encased inside the skull. Indeed, two paragraphs above, it was also recommended that such techniques could be appropriate to use to help settle a recent transatlantic controversy Does a relatively well-defined weak magnetic field actually stimulate the brain beneath the skull

Imaging a Meditating Brain A Commentary

A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness. Human Brain Mapping 1999 7 98-105. This technique measures cerebral blood flow. The descriptions do not make clear how the 45-minute tape corresponds to the minutes allotted for each of the eight PET scans and for each of the four meditative stages. Yoga Nidra meditation does not mean sleep. It refers to a fully conscious state of relaxation. 3. F. DiRusso, A. Martinez, M. Sereno, et al. Cortical sources of the early components of the visual evoked potential. Human Brain Mapping 2002 15 95-111. 8. N. Hadjikhani and P. Roland. Cross-modal transfer of information between the tactile and the visual representations in the human brain A positron emission tomographic study. Journal ofNeuroscience 1998 18 1072-1084.

On Moral Cognition

Moll, R. de Oliveira-Souza, and P. Eslinger. Morals and the human brain A working model. NeuroReport 2003 14 299-306. The bump of benevolence cited in the epigraph correlated with a high forehead, well in front of the bump of veneration. It is only a coincidence that this posterior bump of veneration happens to lie in about the same position as the bigger midline enlargement (the ushnisha) which artists in an earlier millennium chose to imagine would be symbolic of the Buddha's expanded mental capacities Z 687 .

Messenger Molecules Some New Data

Dopamine systems in the primate brain. In Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy. Vol. 13, Pt. 1, The Primate Nervous System, eds. F. Bloom, A. Bjorklund, and T. Hokfelt. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 1997, 263-375. 10. N. Volkow, G. Wang, J. Fowler, et al. Evidence that methylphenidate enhances the saliency of a mathematical task by increasing dopamine in the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry 2004 161 1173-1180. Raclopride was the radiolabeled molecule. 16. K. Varnas, C. Halldin, and H. Hall. Autoradiographic distribution of serotonin transporters and receptor subtypes in human brain. Human Brain Mapping 2004 22 246-260.

How Our Brain Normally Perceives Light and Colors

Expert researchers still differ in the ways they describe the location and extent of this region and interpret its functions. Recent designations speak in terms of V4, V4a, V4v and V4 V8. For this reason, the several related color-biased regions are referred to here with the provisional term, ''V4 color complex.'' The interested reader is referred to the following articles for a further discussion S. Zeki and L. Marini. Three cortical stages of colour processing in the human brain. Brain 1998 121 1669-1685 N. Hadjikhani and R. Tootell. Projection of rods and cones within human visual cortex. Human Brain Mapping 2000 9 55-63 A. Bartels and S. Zeki. The architecture of the colour centre in the human visual brain New results

Through What Steps Does Ordinary Insight Transform Consciousness

Aha effects in a guessing riddle task An event-related potential study. Human Brain Mapping 2004 22 261-270. Fourteen subjects were monitored by a sixty-four-channel ERP technique while they processed a series of 120 Chinese riddles. A difficult riddle followed by a novel keyword provided data for the Aha answer. A similar N2 component has been found in other tests of conflict detection, or error detection including the color conflict conditions inherent in the Stroop test.

Attributing Different Emotions to Various Brain Regions

Nimmo-Smith, and A. Lawrence. Functional neuroanatomy of emotions A meta-analysis. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 2003 3 207-233. 16. R. Maddock, A. Garrett, and M. Buonocore. Posterior cingulate cortex activation by emotional words fMRI evidence from a valence decision task. Human Brain Mapping 2003 18 30-41. 20. T. Wager, K. Phan, I. Liberzon, et al. Valence, gender, and lateralization of functional brain anatomy in emotion A meta-analysis of findings from neuroimaging. Neuroimage 2003 19 513-531. 21. M. Piefke, P. Weiss, H. Markowitsch, et al. Gender differences in the functional neuro-anatomy of emotional episodic autobiographical memory. Human Brain Mapping 2005 24 313-324.

The Male Animal Libido and Exlibido

Horton, et al. Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex. 2001 11 490-497. These structural MRI studies reveal neuroanatomical details. 5. S. Karama, A. Lecours, J. Leroux, et al. Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Human Brain Mapping 2002 16 1-13.

Other Kinds of Rewards That Reinforce Human Behavior

There is still a tendency to talk about discrete ''reward centers'' in the human brain. The discussion above suggests, however, that both the positive and negative reinforcing aspects of drugs seem to act on intricate systems that engage multiple perceptual, motivational, and habitual motoric mechanisms.

Interpreting Synchronized Brain Waves

Thut, et al. Prediction of response speed by anticipatory high-frequency (gamma band) oscillations in the human brain. Human Brain Mapping 2005 24 5058. Anticipation enhances top-down attentional control. 31. A. Gamma, D. Lehmann, E. Frei, et al. Comparison of simultaneously recorded H215O -PET and LORETA during cognitive and pharmacological activation. Human Brain Mapping 2004 22 83-96.

Self Other Frames of Reference Laboratory Correlates

Searching for a baseline Functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2001 2 685-694. In PET and fMRI, activation reflects a brief local increase in blood flow not accompanied by a commensurate increase in oxygen consumption. Deactivation reflects the reverse. The visual association cortex (BA 19) was on the qualified early list of posterior and medial cortical regions. Later interpretations suggest that eye opening (which does increase blood flow in some of these extrastriate visual areas) is a condition closer to the physiological baseline. 5. D. Gusnard and M. Raichle. Functional imaging, neurophysiology and the resting state of the human brain. In The Cognitive Neurosciences III, ed. M. S. Gazzaniga. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2004,1267-1280. Our resting state can be defined in functional anatomical terms as a network of interrelated regions. How is this state being defined psychologically, in more provisional terms, in the...

The Exceptional Stage of Ongoing Enlightened Traits

Its symbolic expression is the urna, that dot between the eyes in the depictions of the Buddha (see chapter 2). In this book, it will represent properties which emerge from the inside, not the outside, of a three-pound human brain. Although this human brain is a soft biological instrument, it has a singular capacity it is able both to imagine and to construct tangible metal instruments in its own image. It has helped design many durable products. Three of them can now come to our aid by serving as loose metaphors. For the deeply enlightened brain of the sage seems to deploy a sensitive internal seismograph. Its intuitive functions have been so enhanced that they will pick up subliminal signals long before they turn into rumbles. And this enlightened person of Stage IX stays centered, as though by some internal gyroscope, despite being challenged by the tilt of seemingly impossible circumstances. Finally, there seems almost to be a set of scales, in

Varieties of Oneness and Unity Category I A and B

Note three risks related to category III. First, it is in the nature of a global existential insight to run the risk of being dismissed as merely metaphysical by someone uninformed, and to risk being overvalued by the person who experiences it. Neither extreme position is warranted, given the remarkable (if still underappreciated) potentials of the human brain. Third, the word psychic may be misunderstood to carry implications of supernatural powers, also unwarranted. 8. N. Ramnani and R. Miall. A system in the human brain for predicting the actions of others. Nature Neuroscience 2004 7 85-90 V. Gallese. The roots of empathy The shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity. Psychopathology 2003 36 171-180. The current data do not establish a perfect one-to-one correspondence between the sites in the brains of the two human subjects. However, the following hypothesis is plausible When we infer that someone else is experiencing certain actions, sensations, or...

How Often Does Enlightenment Occur

A famous Chan master of the Sung dynasty, Ta-hui, was said to have experienced eighteen great awakenings and innumerable smaller ones.6 Hakuin describes some thirteen experiences of awakening, each of differing kinds and degrees, starting when he was twenty-two years old.7 Neuroscientists need to pay more attention to how mature a brain must be before it reaches its full capacities for awakening.3 The existing quantitative EEG techniques suggest that the human brain matures in stages. For example, not until we are between seventeen and twenty-one years old will our prefrontal region finally attain its mature adult characteristics, at least by EEG criteria.8

How Do Psychedelic and Certain Other Drugs Affect the Brain

And these early perceptual symptoms offer tantalizing hints about where psychedelics first act on amine circuits in the human brain (see chapter 103). But it is a different task to localize the sources of those long-delayed mystical, religious, or other experiences. Why Because they do not develop until many hours later (see chapters 101 and 102). One cannot expect to find simple explanations for the experiential flavor of these rare later events. At least not in the known primary effects of the psychedelic drugs.

Letting Go into the Flow

Things get no less miraculous when we examine one of the operations of the human brain. Suppose we choose one of our simpler acts of eating. Let us say that you are hungry, and you see an apple nearby. Leaning forward to pick it up, you've already been motivated by hunger signals from your limbic system, and refined your intentions to reach for the apple within your frontal lobes and basal ganglia. You've also drawn together many covert layers of attention. Now these layers focus (subconsciously) on a particular scenario your whole body interacting within that vaguely spherical volume of familiar space which is its theatre of action. This means, of course, that before you even begin to reach out, your posterior parietal cortex must already be working in close harmony with its corresponding frontal networks, and with layers of other sensorimotor networks.

Expanded Roles for the Insula

Hopkins, et al. The neuroanatomy of remote memory. Neuron 2005 46 799-810. 18. Y. Tang, J. Nyengaard, D. De Groot, et al. Total regional and global number of synapses in the human brain neocortex. Synapse 2001 41 258-273. 7. D. Swaab. Neurobiology and neuropathology of the human hypothalamus. In Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, eds. F. Bloom, A. Bjorklund, and T. Hokfelt. The Primate Nervous System. Vol. 13, Pt. 1, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 1997, 39-137.

The Wide Variety of Cingulate Gyrus Functions

Nimchinsky, et al. Primate cingulate cortex chemoarchitecture and its disruption in Alzheimer's disease. In Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy. Vol. 13, The Primate Nervous System, eds. F. Bloom, A. Bjorklund, and T. Hokfelt. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 1997, 455-528. Authorities differ on the way they number different regions of the cingulate. In part, this is because of the overlapping at the front end near the genu of the corpus callosum, and at the back end (the splenium) where the cingulate shades off into the retrosplenial cortex. Some human brains have two cingulate sulci. This contributes to the difficulties in defining cingulate boundaries. 14. J. Allman, A. Hakem, K. Watson. Two phylogenetic specializations in the human brain. Neuroscientist 2002 8 335-346. It would be of interest to determine the opioid receptor patterns on spindle-shaped and other nerve cell types in the anterior cingulate regions in view of the opioid and placebo responses reviewed in...

The Amygdala as a Gateway to Our Fears

Apergis, et al. Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory. Neuroscience 2001 4 724-731. A caveat is in order with respect to the neuroanatomy of the human amygdala. An fMRI study of human responses to faces suggested that rapid habituation was more associated with signals from the ventromedial region of the amygdala. Surprisingly, at the anatomical level studied, this site would correspond more with the actual location of the basolateral complex of nuclei. In contrast, the subjects' more sustained responses to stimuli (which differed in their valences) were associated with signals from the more dorsolateral region. In fact, this lateral site would correspond more with the central nucleus. See C. Wright. Differential prefrontal cortex and amygdala habituation to repeatedly presented emotional stimuli. NeuroReport 2001 12 379-383.

How Do Certain Drugs Alter Consciousness

Pascual-Marqui, et al. Localization of MDMA-induced brain activity in healthy volunteers using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Human Brain Mapping 2001 14 152-165. 18. F. Vollenweider, P. Vontobel, I. Oye, et al. Effects of (S)-ketamine on striatal dopamine A 11C raclopride PET study of a model psychosis in humans. Journal of Psychiatric Research 2000 34 35-43. The evidence of increased DA release is calculated from the reduced binding of this labeled DA agonist. The (S)-ketamine dosage was 15 mg during the first 5 minutes then 0.014 mg kg per minute for 90 minutes. In a recent fMRI study, normal subjects who developed dissociative symptoms on ketamine also performed a visual discrimination task. Their task performance did not differ significantly from that on the placebo. (Their ketamine dosage was 0.5 mg kg over 45-60 minutes.) This report illustrates that fMRI and PET studies may yield different results. The reasons could be related...

Significance of the Late Moonlight Phase within the Whole Profile of Kensho

Neural basis of prosopagnosia An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping 2002 16 176-182. 19. A. Valentin, M. Anderson, G. Alarcon, et al. Responses to single pulse electrical stimulation identify epileptogenesis in the human brain in vivo. Brain 2002 125 1709-1718.

Cultural Metaphors Similes and Visual Symbols

Each of these devices creates problems when subjected to poetic, artistic, and personal license. We find it difficult to distinguish sensory reality from imaginative fiction. Too easily do we assume that every literary reference to moonlight must involve a metaphor or simile. We forget that metaphors, similes, and symbols are secondary, creative inventions that depend on the human brain. We use each device to create meaningful links between what we had already perceived first via our special senses, and what cognition then refashioned into concepts (no need to hammer home the point to illustrate the ways we ''forge these associative links'').

BThe nature of higherorder processes relevant to a given system can never be deduced purely from an analysis of its

It may help to put the problem in perspective to consider the following. When the human population of the earth has doubled and then doubled again there will finally be about as many people as there are neurons in a typical brain some 20 billion (Calvin (1983)Bib). (The brain also contains a much larger number of simpler glial cells whose purpose has yet to be fully elucidated.) By that time the communications between people will also, thanks to phones, the Internet, TV, etc., be getting on for being as complex as those between neurons, many of which can be in direct contact with some 10,000 others. We may well expect to see various groups of people collaborating in certain functions just as brain cells collaborate. In brief I am proposing the suggestion that a population of such a size would have a complexity at least as great as a human brain, and reasonably similar processes of operation.

How Do Psychedelic Drugs Affect Amine Receptors

The NE beta-receptors are poised to modulate memory, as well as motor and sensory functions. In the human brain, they are most dense in the hippocampus (especially in its CA1 region) where they influence its data-processing functions.2 What happens elsewhere, say in sensory systems, when NE activates its beta-receptors First, the next cell slows. But this only occurs because beta-receptors suppress its spontaneous background firing activity. For the final result of this brief inhibition will soon be to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of this postsynap-tic cell. Now those next waves of other incoming impulses can stimulate the cell into stronger excitatory synaptic responses.

General Comments on Neuroimaging

We still lack basic information about the functional anatomy of the normal human brain. We do not fully understand the psychophysiological sequences involved in the styles of Zen meditation and its related alternate states of consciousness. Advances in both of these projects hinge on defining how different regions interact physiologically within widely distributed networks.

Mind Control

In the past few years, there has been an enormous expansion in our knowledge about the structure of the human brain and how its various parts operate. Probably the best-known finding from brain research is that the human brain is lateralizcd with respect to many cognitive functions. The left side or hemisphere is more specialized for speech, reading, writing, and analytical thought, while the right side specializes in a range of other less clearly elucidated cognitive functions having to do with pattern recognition and sensory thinking. Several recent books discuss these findings in depth (see the Notes ami References section for titles). We don't have a mind we do mind. Think of mind as a verb, not as an object or a thing, as a function of the human brain but also as a function of the entire human body.

Chapter Seven

Tte highest limit that a human brain can contain, the maximum a human memory can retain, is exemplified by Ven. Ananda's memorization of the Tipitaka (The Three Baskets). In a way this is a record of human heroism. No one else, other than Ven. Ananda, has performed this kind of feat in human history.

The Roshi

How to interact with the keyboard and pedals of a human brain, the most complex organ in the known universe. How soon, if ever, will Zen aspirants come to a true awakening, to enlightenment Much of this hinges on the quality of their interactions with the master, the roshi.

Response Of The Body

Contrary to this movement, there are information coming from the brain, the data were collected by the body and introduced to all parts of the aura. This original, independent action of the body consists of information that its senses receive during contacts with its environment thoughts regarding these sensations, as well as human brain thoughts regarding the past, present and future.

Lesson Three

We have already seen how the human brain generates electricity through the action of the chemicals, the water, and the metallic ores coursing through it and of which it is comprised. Just as the human brain generates electricity so does the body itself, for the blood is coursing through the veins and arteries of the body also carrying those chemicals, those metallic traces, and the water. The blood is, as you will know, mainly water. The whole body is suffused with electricity. It is not the type of electricity which lights your house or heats the stove with which you cook. Look upon it as of magnetic origin.

Info

There is a connection between musical and mental rhythms. The human brain is a mass of vibrations with electrical impulses radiating from every part of it. A human emits a musical note depending upon the rate of vibration of that human. Just as one could get near a beehive and hear the drone of a whole lot of bees, so perhaps could some other creature hear humans. Every human has his or her own basic note which is constantly emitted in much the same way as a telephone wire emits a note in a wind. Further, popular music is such that it is in sympathy with the brain wave formation, it is in sympathy with the harmonic of the body vibration. You may get a hit tune which sets everyone humming it and whistling it. People say that they have such-and-such a tune running constantly through their brain. Hit tunes are ones which key-in to the human brain waves for a certain time before their basic energy is dissipated.

Peptides

Brain peptides exploded only recently on the research scene, but they have been around for a very long time. Even invertebrates as far down as the earthworm and snail make beta-endorphin, prolactin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Obviously, each such peptide does not now exercise the same function in the human brain as it did in the earthworm. New species devised new uses for their old peptides. What role do peptides play in humans

The Thalamus

A promising new technique called diffusion tensor imaging can now localize as many as fourteen thalamic nuclei in the living human brain.2 Two important connections linking the thalamus with the temporal lobe have now been described. One path comes from the medial dorsal nucleus. The other arrives from the pulvi-nar in its medial and inferior regions.3

Seeing The Future

In order for us to move from one time level to another, certain amount of time has to pass. That is the speed of time going by, as humans perceive it. Human brain can not grasp the fact that this movement to the next time level can happen a lot faster, even momentarily, in order to find what is going on at that time level.

Serotonin Systems

The third group of biogenic amine nerve cells releases serotonin (ST). Serotonin nerve cells are buried deep along the midline core of the brainstem. Here, they cluster into the several raphe nuclei Z 205, 208 figure 7, 198 . The human brain contains only some 235,000 ST nerve cells, but each terminal network also ramifies extensively.15

Cybernetics

Of course we must be careful not to consider humans as nothing more than complex machines. The human brain is vastly more complex than a computer. It is impossible to reproduce all known human biological functions, not to mention those we still don't understand. With that in mind, we could say that the great advantage of cybernetics is that it gives us a clear working model on which to base further research. In his theory of psycho-cybernetics, Maxwell Maltz shows that how human beings make use of an incredible machine - the human brain and nervous system - in order to achieve specific goals. The fact that we are free to choose our goals separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. This freedom of choice is what gives humanity its grandeur and privileged place on

Novelty and Surprise

Consider, for example, what happens when the frontal lobes encounter novel situations. Now they can contribute to a different kind of potential. Why is it known as the P300 Because it is a positive (P) waveform which doesn't arrive until a long 300 milliseconds after some outside signal, such as the stimulus of a sound.8-9 If a stimulus takes this long, 0.3 second, to evoke a potential in the human brain, it has been filtering through layers of synapses. Some of the resulting impulses could have been conferring (or related to) our prior cognitive sets or other soft-wired associative mechanisms. Indeed, when a potential arrives this late, and is shaped more like a rounded foothill than a jagged peak, it would seem as though the brain had been making quasi-mental, reflexive associations at several different levels.8-10

Ambient Vision

During stimulating circumstances, this stage does not stay empty. Soon, scenery and plot are improvised. Central casting easily supplies characters. The temporal lobes, in particular, provide many susceptible links in a person's lifelong chain of subliminal associations. Tugging on these links, the stressed human brain can take off on solo flights of imagination, and it can even fill up a fuselage behind the pilot with surrealistic, phantom spirits. Similarly, patients whose eyes have remained closed can gather enough inferences from their surgeons' and nurses' voices to fill in the rest of the details of an entire operating room. In the phenomenon called autoscopy, such patients imagine their body in detail, lying down on the operating table, seeming to witness the whole scene from above.

Your Memory

The human brain contains billions of nerve cells called neurones. They communicate with each other through chemical and electrical messages. The number of interactions that are theoretically possible is astronomical, some say the number would be greater than the total number of atoms within the whole universe

The View of Tantra

Frankfurt, a picture of that place comes into our mind. Thoughts are always grasping at something and are mixed up with such pictures. This is the way thoughts interact with the Manas, or the discursive mind (yid), the bio-computer in the human brain. The technical term clear (gsal-ba) means that these computer-generated pictures never cover over our consciousness on the contrary, our awareness (rig-pa) remains in its own original condition, like a mirror reflecting an object set before it. The mirror is not changed or modified by whatever object, good or bad, beautiful or ugly, is set before it. It clearly reflects all of them, whatever their nature may be. Rigpa is this capacity of the Nature of Mind, that is to say, it clearly reflects everything. But the Nature of Mind (sems-nyid) is in no way changed or modified by whatever is reflected. This is clarity. So, in terms of Dzogchen, when we speak of the inseparability of clarity and emptiness (gsal stong dbyer-med), comparing the...

Absolute Blackness

This leaf was a formed hallucination. It was also the initial positive event in a sequence of other phenomena in the second phase of this absorption. For these reasons, it is important to localize its site of origin. Why was it seen on the left side This indicates that the image was generated within networks in the right side of my brain. Recent research shows that we humans do preferentially activate the right anterior temporal lobe when we pay selective visual attention to the shape of an object.8 In the monkey, once visual impulses have first registered back in the primary visual cortex, they then pass through area V4 on their way down to the inferotemporal cortex. V4 is a rich palate, heavily daubed with many potential colors. Not only are these V4 nerve cells remarkably responsive to colors, they also fire extra volleys when a monkey brings extra effort into its attention.9 In the human brain, the cortical counterpart to V4 is located in the lower medial part of the visual...