Methods Of Hypnotising

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Lloyd Tuckey's Method - the testing of the degree of hypnotisability of the patient - finger fixation - verbal monotonous - toned suggestions - response to local warmth - method of awakening - testing of stages of hypnosis - cataleptic stage, automatic stage, somnambulic stage - testing for en rapport - production of negative hallucinations

Bernheim's Method - eye to eye fixation - monotonous verbal commands - thumb and finger imperceptible movements - how to assist a difficult patient - speed with which repeated hypnosis call be made, and how

Grossman's Method - a hint in how to over - come the sceptic - suggest suggestibility to each patient -insensibility of the eyeballs - the half-sitting position and its hints - the dazed expression - how to succeed with an obstinate patient - treatment of pain - persistence until success - talent for invention - induction of anaesthesia and amnesia immediately on awakening the patient - prevention of harmful results of autosuggestion

The Author's Occidental Method - importance of comfortable position of patient in easy chair - all -important explanations to the patient - what the hypnotist will do - what the hypnotist must expect - what the hypnotist expects of the hypnotised - mental state of rest - automatic verbal and motor obedience -signal for awakening - insensibility of eyes test - the tiring of the sense of sight by the bright light of the ophthalmoscope (or other light), or by other methods described - the wording of the all-important detailed suggestions of sleep - the automatic closing of the eyes - complete relaxation - the dreamy state -the sleepy state - the production of the cataleptic state by stroking the limb - the automatic state - the somnambulic state- the acting ofdreams - the acting to command - the carrying out of post-hypnotic suggestion - the method of awakening - how to command the awakening with certainty.

Liebeault's Method - the making the mind as blank as possible - fixation of the eyes on any object - sleepy suggestions - tests for suggestibility - en rapport

Erskine's Method - eye fixation whilst patient relaxes fully in an easy chair - eyelids to close with each verbal count - command to sleep - suggestions made - method of awakening - evading the conscious mind

Binet and Fere's Method of Fascination - its advantages - its objections and dangers - tendency to induce a state of complete automatism with entire suppression of the patient's personality - the hypnotist's eyes -appearance of intense brilliancy - patient attracted by those eyes - success of this method with the insane persons upon whom the other methods have failed - cutting short maniacal attacks - successful treatment of various intractable mental conditions - the first sign of reversed hypnotism - tendency to fatigue of the hypnotist

The treatment of refractory cases

Bernheim - Coue Method - the patient relaxes on a couch, the head of which is raised - the room is Hooded with a beautiful blue light - patient asked to either look at light reflected from ceiling or at a print of the hypnotist's eyes - a special gramophone record is played to produce hypnotic sleep - hypnotist energetically moves his hands and arms in certain directions of magnetic line of force - advantages of the method

The Author's Artificial Eye Method - a Dr. Millauro artificial eye used - instructions of a suggestive nature given to patient - patient relaxes in ordinary chair - patient carries out hypnotist's commands -method of lighting up the room and the artificial eye - subsidiary use of the Cannon Hypnoscope

Treatment by transfer of illness from the sick to one already profoundly hypnotised - Luys' clinic method -the " adoption " is not only of the disease, but also of the patient's personality, by the profoundly hypnotised - its experimental value

Hypnotisation of animals - illustrations - hypnotisation of the victim of animals

The Author's Method of using suggestion with hypnosis - patient must relax completely - close his eyes -pay NO attention to what is said to him - election of words - how to use these selected words in therapeusis - cycle of repetition and rest - Method of Silence used when patient will listen and pay attention to what is said to him

Delboeuf's- Yogism - so-called occult and Indian fakir practices explained

Auto-suggestion - Napoleon and Coste de Lagrave - "will-power" - essence of faith - healing and " Christian Science "

Carl Wickland Modified Method of Depossession - medium - static current - how to "de-possess" a patient - the author's modified method - how to produce a static current

LLOYD TUCKEY'S METHOD

(i) PATIENT reclines on a couch, or in an easy chair.

(ii) I stand or sit beside him (the personal pronoun is used so that the reader will identify himself with the " I").

(iii) I hold the first two fingers of one hand at a distance of about twelve inches from his eyes, at such an angle that his gaze shall be directed upwards in a strained manner.

(iv) I direct him to look steadily at the tips of those fingers, and to make his mind as nearly blank as possible.

(v) After he has stared fixedly for about half a minute at the fingers, his expression will undergo a change; a far away look coming into his face.

(vi) His pupils (eyes) will contract and dilated several times, and his eyelids will twitch spasmodically. These signs indicate a commencing induction of the desired psychical condition.

(vii) The progress of sleep is generally helped by verbal suggestion, such as "Your eyelids are becoming heavy; they are getting more and more heavy; my fingers seem indistinct to you (this is said when it is noticed that the pupils are dilating and contracting); and a numbness is stealing over your limbs; you will be fast asleep in a few minutes; now sleep." If the eyelids do not close spontaneously, I shut them gently.

It is sometimes an assistance to lay one's hand gently, but firmly, on the forehead. (One to three minutes are usually required by this method to produce the hypnotic condition.)

(viii) Before awakening the patient, I gently rub the epigastrium and suggest a feeling of warmth in that part of the body, a general sensation of comfort and well-being, and agreeable awakening. The response to suggestion of local warmth is an excellent test of vital force and reaction, and it varies with the health of the patient.

(ix) After a few minutes, I tell the patient that he has rested long enough, and that he can now open his eyes and arouse himself. (The patient generally obeys at once and states that he feels refreshed.)

At the next sitting:

Science of Hypnosis: methods of hypnotising

(i) The patient enters the hypnotic state more rapidly, and its degree will very likely be found to be intensified.

(ii) Therapeutic suggestions may now be made.

(iii) If desired the extent of hypnotic influence may be tested. This is generally done by:

(a) raising the arm at an angle to the body, and telling the patient to keep it there;

(b) if the cataleptic state has been reached, it becomes stiff and rigid in that position, and will remain in it for an indefinite time, corresponding to the subject's muscular development;

(c) if the arm shows no tendency to drop, a rotary motion may be given to it, and the patient told to continue this movement;

(d) if the third degree is reached, the patient will continue to do so until he is ordered to desist it.

(iv) The tests for somnambulism are now applied:

(a) speak to the patient and get him to reply;

(b) another person is then told to address him, and if the questions he may put fail to elicit any response, it will be evident that the subject is en rapport with the hypnotist only, and other tests may be used, such as tickling the nostrils to demonstrate that anaesthesia exists and prove the depth of somnambulism;

(c) posthypnotic suggestions may be made;

(d) negative hallucinations and delusions of the senses can be suggested (for example, the patient is told that when he wakes up he will not see Mr. A, in the room, nor hear what he says, and will not feel him touch him).

BERNHEIM'S METHOD

(i) I request the patient to sit in an armchair.

(ii) And to look straight into my eyes for a few seconds, but not longer than one minute.

(iii) I declare loudly and firmly, in a monotonous tone of voice that he is: (a) going on famously;

Science of Hypnosis: methods of hypnotising

(b) that his eyes are already moist;

(c) that his eyelids are heavy;

(d) that he feels a pleasant sensation of warmth in his legs and arms.

(iv) I tell the patient to look now at the thumb and index finger of my left hand (which I depress unnoticeably so that the eyelids follow).

(v) If the eyelids fall of their own accord soon, I have gained my end.

(vii) I lift up one of the patient's arms and lean it against the wall, or against the patient's head, declaring that it is rigid, that it will be drawn irresistibly against his head, as if his head was a magnet.

(viii) Should this not succeed, I must help a little.

(ix) I become very definite and intent in suggesting.

(x) I suggest at the same time, disappearance of thought, obedience of the nerves, feeling of well-being, rest and slumber.

(xi) As soon as one or other of these suggestions begins to work, I must use it and lay emphasis on it. At times it will be desirable to get the patient to state his experience by movements of the head (nodding for yes, and shaking the head for no!).

(xii) Every suggestion which elicits the reply "yes" in the early stages is an important achievement, and I must use it for all the following suggestions: "You see, it is working well; your slumber is getting sounder; your arm gets more and more rigid; you cannot depress it now."

(xiii) If the patient tries to do so with some result, I resist him and say: "On the contrary, if you try to bring it down, it only moves towards your head. Look here, I attract it towards your head."

(xiv) It is wise to avoid the suggestion of catalepsy of the arm at the first two or three sittings, in very critical and refractory people. After some practice one soon can recognise when it is safe to risk this.

(xv) It is a mistake to make the patient fix his eyes on an object too long, as a rule. A minute is usually sufficient:

Later on it is sufficient to look at the person to be hypnotised for one or two seconds, and to give the suggestion of sleep at the same time. As a rule I simply declare: "You are asleep" making a movement of my hand in front of the patient's eyes and the subject is immediately hypnotised.

GROSSMAN'S METHOD

(i) I suggest suggestibility to every patient. I deal with the sceptic as follows. I say to him: " I am going to press on your conjunctivae (eyeballs) with my fingers, and although you will scarcely believe it, I will do so without you blinking your eyes." The experiment nearly always succeeds, because the conjunctivae of almost every person become anaesthetic by the person fixing, at the same time, the attention on this sort of suggestion.

(ii) The fact that the suggestion has succeeded, frequently increases the suggestibility to such an extent that the command to sleep, simply following at once on this, suffices to cause hypnosis to appear forthwith.

In other cases:

(i) The patient sits in a chair, without leaning back, or still better, rests on a sofa in a half-sitting, half-lying position;

(ii) And is told to fix me intently with his eyes for a few seconds.

(iii) I then suggest to him that he feels a sensation of warmth traversing his limbs, and especially that his arms which are resting on his knees are becoming as heavy as lead.

(iv) Having said this, I raise the arms a little, catching hold of them by the wrists, and cause them to fall suddenly by a slight push of my hands.

(v) They fall back on the knees, apparently as heavy as lead, and the patient actually feels a marked tiredness in his arms, in every case.

(vi) If I do not observe the somewhat dazed expression, or traces of it, which may only last for a few seconds, I then employ the principal "trick":

(vii) I ask the patient to close his eyes, or I close them myself quickly; then

(viii) I seize the wrists, the forearms being flexed upwards, and suggest that he is becoming so tired that he can no longer sit up, but must sink back.

(ix) I gradually press him backwards myself by imperceptible pushes, until his head is resting on the back of the chair, and provided that it is still necessary, give the command to sleep.

(x) It is best to touch the painful part with the right hand, and to declare at the same time that. the pains are disappearing.

(xi) I then ask the patient during the hypnosis about the result, and, if possible, do not leave off until this is complete - at all events for the moment.

(xii) I often have to use several suggestions, and should possess talent for invention. Everything succeeds at once with persons who are very suggestible, while one has much difficulty with others.

(xiii) I must first see that I induce anaesthesia and amnesia (loss of memory) as rapidly as possible, after awakening the patient.

(xiv) It is important to prevent the harmful results of certain auto-suggestion. Because people fear harmful results from hypnosis, they wake up giddy after the hypnosis; one should emphatically and with the utmost firmness and confidence state the stupidity of such ideas. All these things must be suggested away by a renewal of the hypnosis. Remember that anything produced by suggestion can be removed by suggestion.

THE AUTHOR'S OCCIDENTAL METHOD

(i) I place my patient in a comfortable chair, or lay him down flat on a couch.

(ii) I see that the limbs and neck are in comfortable positions.

(iii) I tell the patient: ALL-IMPORTANT -

(c) What I expect of my patient.

(1 ) That it is necessary for the patient to pass of his own accord into a state of restfuless and extreme mental comfort;

(2 ) In which the patient will automatically carry out verbal requests, unless he objects;

(3 ) The patient may think he is falling to sleep, but that in actuality he is very mentally alert; but I then say to him: "I want you to think of nothing at all."

(iv) I give him a signal for awakening, usually: " You will hear me count seven, and when I have counted up to seven, you will be able to open your eyes, and awaken."

(v) "I am going to press my fingers on the whites of your eyes, and although you will scarcely believe it, your eyes will not close, but will remain wide open; they won't blink. You see your eyes have already lost their power of feeling (and are anaesthetic)."

(vi) If very successful, as is usual, I can at once command sleep, and hypnosis is produced.

(vii) If (v) was not successful (an unusual occurrence), or even if successful and I wish to further suggest sleep and tire the senses, with a view to producing profound hypnosis, I fix the patient's eyes for a few seconds with my own eyes, and then replace this method by one of the bright coloured lights of my hypnoscope (for use of colours, see the section on the " Spectrone " Lamp), at a distance of one foot in front of and above the level of the patient's eyes. If the room is very bright, I use a large plated vibration fork, which I vibrate in the same position (in which case the patient is asked to look at the space between the two vibrating ends).

(viii) I then say: "Look steadily at this light (or other object), but do not strain your eyes; you will soon see two lights and a glow or halo will form around them: think of nothing; and let your. mind go blank. Your sight is growing dim and indistinct; your eyes will soon feel heavy, very heavy, and your eyelids will tend to close. Keep your eyes open as long as you can, and so try to resist the feeling of tiredness. (Pause.) Numbness is creeping over your limbs, your arms and legs. (Pause.) My voice seems muffled to you; it is becoming more muffled to you. (Pause.) You are getting more sleepy; you cannot keep your eyes open. You now breathe slowly and deeply, slowly and deeply, slowly and deeply, slowly and deeply."

(ix) "Now as I pass my hand (now resting on the patient's forehead lightly) over your eyes, your eyes will close; your arms and legs, especially your arms, are becoming warmer and warmer, and more heavy. They are becoming heavier and more and more numb." (I sometimes use at this stage the method described as Erskine's Method.)

(x) "Relax more; let yourself go! Just go to sleep, but remember that you are not really asleep, and will hear all that I say to you. As you sleep more deeply you will only hear what I say, and you cease to hear anyone else speak, and therefore do not know how to answer them; keep your eyes closed tightly; let go!" (The patient is now in a dreamy state.) " Gradually you forget everything, forget everything, everything, everything. Your thoughts like birds in the distance are vanishing, vanishing, vanishing."

(xi) I then say: "You are unable to lift your eyebrows, and you cannot open your closed eyelids. The more you try to raise your eyebrows in your effort to open your eyes, the more tightly will your eyes be closed."

(xii) A few seconds later say: " You cannot move your hand." (Usually the patient cannot; if he can, resist it and say that he is actually making his hand go the opposite way to which he wants it to go.)

(xiii) Pause, and then tell the patient to move his hand if he can. (He struggles to do so, and at most makes little headway.)

(xiv) I then stroke an arm or leg from the top to the bottom (even if covered with clothes) and suggest: "The arm is becoming stiff and stiffer, stiffer and stiffer, stiffer and stiffer, and whatever position I place it in, it will remain fixed there." (Catalepsy.)

(xv) I then move the arm in a certain direction, telling the patient to continue the movement, and if it continues to move then, of its own accord, until I stop it, I suggest it is becoming heavy and just like lead, and that when I let go it will drop into his lap, heavily, just like a stone. I then suggest a dream, and ask the patient to relate it and act it for me. If the patient is definitely in the state of somnambulism) as the psycho-physical test would indicate, the patient will faithfully reproduce all these things. I can suggest acting such as " You are a general, leading an army to victory " and the patient immediately faithfully reproduces that role. I can also suggest post-hypnotic actions, now, at a future date which will be carried out at the exact time stated.

(xvi) Now I make the necessary therapeutic suggestions, and may ask the patient to nod in affirmation. Lost memory can also be recalled with a faithfulness and accuracy almost incredible.

(xvii) I then command the patient to repeat silently in his mind certain suggestions, so turning the heterosuggestion into autosuggestion under extremely potent psychic conditions. I say: ''Repeat in YOUR mind, my disease will pass - it will pass - it will pass - it will pass - my unconscious mind now works for my health, my success, and my happiness; my health, my success, my happiness. I overcome everything with the greatest of ease - I overcome everything with the greatest of case - I overcome everything with the greatest of ease; I have renewed energy, courage, and confidence. I am full of health and the joy of living. I am calm, harmonious and confident; calm, harmonious and confident; calm, harmonious and confident. I have a new and powerful personality and I am in harmony with the Universe and at peace with myself -at peace with myself. I am ever so well and ever so happy." (For further suggestions see wording of Author's gramophone suggestion records in the Appendix)

(xviii) I then count very slowly, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The patient may have to make a strong effort, but usually succeeds in opening his eyes at the time appointed. In unusual cases blowing upon the eyelids and suggesting awakening will succeed. Should even this fail, which is extremely rare, or should you be called in to deal with a case which has been hypnotised, and whose hypnotist has, through want of skill, failed to awaken the person, you will speak as to a third person, and say: "'Mr. (or Miss) X will wake up refreshed, and without any headache or tiredness, in exactly five minutes time." This method will always succeed.

LIEBEAULT'S METHOD

(i) I sit my patient in an armchair.

(ii) And tell the patient: "Make your mind as blank as possible. Think of nothing at all."

(iii) "Fix your eyes on this" (pointing to some object anywhere in the room).

(iv) I suggest that: "Your eyelids are getting heavy; the eyelids will soon close; your vision is getting dim and misty; your arms and legs are getting heavy; numbness is creeping over your limbs; my voice is becoming muffled to you; you are getting more and more sleepy; you now cannot keep your eyes open." (Here the patient closes the eyes almost automatically, or the eyes are closed by me.) The patient is indeed asleep.

(v) About two minutes of this talk about sleep usually produces an hypnotic effect on a new patient; and on subsequent visits even less time is required.

(vi) I then proceed with the proper suggestion treatment.

(vii) To test the power of susceptibility, Liebeault placed his hand over the epigastrium, and applied gentle friction, suggesting as he did so, a sensation of warmth; he regarded a responsive glow as almost essential to the success of subsequent treatment, and it is the first link in the chain which constitutes rapport (psychical contact: "in touch with"), between the physician and the patient. The warmth is not merely imaginary, for it is appreciable to the touch, and can often be registered by the thermometer, and is, in fact, analogous to blushing.

(viii) When the hypnotic sleep has been profound, it may be necessary twice or thrice to repeat the order to wake up, and even to enforce it by fanning the patient or blowing gently upon his eyes; but the simple command is usually enough.

ERSKINE'S METHOD

(i) The patient sits in an easy chair and relaxes.

(ii) Say: " Look at me! " (The hypnotist looks into the left eye of the patient for about a minute.)

(iii) Say: " Now close your eyes each time I count: when I have counted up to ten, you will not be able to open your eyes."

(iv) If this suggestion works, the hypnotist now commands: " You are fast asleep, fast asleep! "

(v) Suggestions are now made.

(vi) The patient is awakened by the hypnotist " snapping " his fingers.

(vii) Should (iii) not be effective and the patient can open his eyes, the hypnotist now commands: " You are glued to the scat and you cannot get up." This suggestion is usually effective and the patient is so surprised that the mind at once passes into the psychic state, however light a hypnosis it may be.

BINET AND FERE'S METHOD OF FASCINATION

In ordinary medical practice it is unwise to use this method as it introduces too much personal element into the hypnotism, and induces a state of complete automatism in which the subject's personality or ego is entirely suppressed.

(i) The hypnotist asks the patient to fix his eyes on the hypnotist's right eye, and the hypnotist then looks fixedly and pertinaciously into the left eye of the patient at the distance of a few inches.

(ii) At the same time he firmly holds both the patient's hands.

(iii) In a few minutes the patient's face becomes expressionless.

(iv) The patient sees nothing but the hypnotist's eye, which will appear to shine with intense brilliancy; and to which the patient is attracted like a nail drawn to a magnet.

This method frequently succeeds with insane patients, when all other methods have failed.

Any means to obtain the hypnotic state are permissible in dealing with the insane, as by using hypnotism and suggestion, attacks of mania can be cut short, and various intractable mental conditions cured.

The objections to this method from the hypnotist's point of view are twofold:

(1) If the patient is refractory and the hypnotist is tired, the hypnotist may be hypnotised by the patient. This happened to both Braid of Manchester, and Liebeault of Nancy.

The first sign of the hypnotism being reversed is very unpleasant (the hypnotist being hypnotised by the patient), and a curious inhibiting influence steals over the oral muscles. (These particular muscles are less under the control of the higher centres than the muscles of other parts of the body, and this is often wcll observed in G.P.I. (dementia paralytica), chronic alcoholism, and allied conditions. )

(2) The hypnotist becomes fatigued. In cases refractory to hypnotism: (i) Hold one of the patient's hands with your left hand.

(ii) Stroke his forehead with your right hand.

(iii) At the same time suggest the symptoms of sleep. Remember that manipulations about the head have in many persons a most soporific effect.

Another method is also used, even when the usual methods have occasionally lost their effect (and in addition to them):

(i) Stroking the patient's forehead and head gently in one direction.

(ii) Whilst the patient's gaze is fixed on some distant object.

(iii) It must also be remembered that sometimes (in a few cases only) verbal suggestions regarding the onset of sleep may actually tend to keep the patient awake.

BERNHEIM-COUE METHOD

(i) The patient is made to relax fully on a couch, the head of which is raised. (The room is flooded with a beautiful rich blue light, which is reflected on to the ceiling, and concentrated on one spot.)

(ii) The patient is now commanded to look at the part of the ceiling where the greatest concentration of light is focused, for almost one minute;

(iii) or, alternatively, with the room flooded with light, the patient is asked to concentrate his attention upon a large photograph of the hypnotist's piercing eyes, held at a distance of three feet, for one minute.

(iv) A specially prepared record is played, usually with the Author's suggestions on it, which now gives all the various commands necessary to produce hypnotic sleep.

(v) In addition, the hypnotist frequently gives out his magnetic force by stretching out his arms in front of him, with palms downward, and the thumbs touching.

(vi) Then the arms (outstretched) sweep down over the patient and to the hypnotist's side with a rapid sweeping rhythmic action, until the patient is in trance.

(vii) (The great advantage of this method is that the patient can afterwards hypnotise himself by the use of a similar record, only with auto-suggestions also recorded on the gramophone record, so that the patient not only gets the benefit of the hypnotic sleep, but also of the potent suggestions, made out in the form of a telegraphic wire, using a self-stopping gramophone, when he will afterwards fall into a natural sleep, when all the suggestions which are on this particular record - as each patient has a special record made for himself under expert supervision - will be reiterated again and again until the patient wakes up from a natural sleep in from ten to twenty minutes, feeling refreshed, happy and contented. The Author also uses this method which he perfected for his friend Dr. de Radwan).

THE AUTHOR'S ARTIFICIAL EYE METHOD OF INDUCING HYPNOTISM

A very good, heavy-looking artificial eye is required with a blue iris and a medium sized pupil; it should be so well made that the pupil appears to dilate when one gazes at it for a minute or so. (The Author prefers the artificial eyes made by the daughter of Dr. O. Millauro of 43 Tavistock Square, London, W.C.1, at two guineas each. Only one eye is needed and with reasonable care will last a lifetime.)

(i) The patient is commanded to relax in the chair, and then you place a piece of black cloth on the palm of the patient's left hand and put the eye on the cloth, so that the pupil slopes towards you. Now place the patient's right hand underneath his left hand, and let these hands so rest comfortably in the patient's lap,

(it) Say: "You will look at the pupil and notice that it dilates, and varies in size. In fact the whole eye varies in size, and tends to appear to become misty and large and occasionally disappear."

(iii) Command: "You will be fast asleep in less than two minutes."

(iv) If the patient is not asleep at the end of this time, pass your right hand down from his eyes to the artificial eye (his eyes invariably follow your hand) and command the patient to sleep. Usually the patient is hypnotised and potent suggestions can then be made.

(v) Where the room is very dark I have a small light, preferably green or blue, shining upon the eye which is in the patient's left hand, and concentrate the purple ray of my hypnoscope upon the glabella. Often very rapid hypnosis is thus induced.

N.B. In this method no suggestions of sleep are given beyond the preliminary. explanation and the command (if necessary) when the hand is passed over the eyes of the patient, down to the artificial eye, when the patient's eyes close. If they do not, command the eyes to close. (The clue is "cLosE your eyes.")

TREATMENT BY TRANSFER OF ILLNESS FROM THE SICK TO ONE ALREADY HYPNOTISED : THE POWER OF EXACT AND DETAILED MIMICRY

(i) The patient is directed to sit down and grasp the hands of a profoundly hypnotised subject. (Luys' Clinic in Paris.)

(ii) The hypnotiser then passes a heavy magnetised bar of steel up and down both sitters' bodies, especially pressing on the cardiac and epigastric areas: the hand will do.

(iii)A shiver passes through the hypnotised subject's frame, and he begins to complain of suffering from the same symptoms as the patient has experienced.

(iv) The doctor questions him as to the symptoms, and then assures the patient that he will be cured.

(v) In the meantime the patient looks on and sees the transference writhing in his pains, and imitating his voice, gait and demeanour, to a detailed degree which is extremely impressive.

(vi) When the doctor thinks that this state of exact mimicry has been sufficiently demonstrated, he wakes up the subject and tells him to feel no more pain (in fact the hypnotised subject has usually no recollection of what has happened in the somnambulic state, and goes away rejoicing in the fee which the hypnotist or the cured patient has given him for the sitting).

(vii) Luys, of Paris, believed that the sitter not only took on the disease, but also the personality of the patient, imitating a female by her exact female voice, and a male by his male voice, etc. This is a rather ancient method which need hardly exist in this age of science, as Luys intended it and interpreted it to be; but from an experimental point of view it has many lessons to teach those who are willing to study these phenomena. The Author uses it on many occasions because he realises the great value of perfect mimicry; the effect upon the conscious and subconscious mind is enormous. One has only to recall how a habit can be cured in oneself by seeing another do the same thing, and susceptibility to illness of mind and body is really a bad habit (habits can be subconscious as well as conscious) Many bad habits and illnesses can be cured if only a mirror of the mind and its resultant actions can be effectually portrayed. to the sufferer. The only perfect way we know of at present, apart from coincidental identical sufferers (as a person with a peculiar facial tic, seeing by chance another person with an identical tic, will frequently never suffer from that tic again, in degree to his suggestibility, which explains the greater cures of this kind in children who are very suggestible) is the use of a somnambulic hypnotic subject as the perfect mimic.

ANIMALS AND HYPNOTISM

Animals can be hypnotised, by "fixing" their gaze, by stroking their heads, their bodies, and so forth. The method of changing the nest of a sitting hen, familiar to poultry farmers, depends on hypnotism for its success. The fowl's head is firmly held under its wing for a few minutes first, and then she is carried from one nest to the other, and appears to be quite ignorant of the change. The drowsiness induced in many animals by gentle friction of the forehead is a matter of common observation. In South America negroes are reduced to a condition of drowsiness by the gentle stroking of the head and manipulation of the hair, which they seem to be so fond of, at the hands of their women-folk.

On the other hand, tigers, lions and snakes, etc., first hypnotise their victims. Note the vacant ("frightened") stare in the victim attacked(even well portrayed in pictures).

THE AUTHOR'S METHOD OF USING SUGGESTION WITHOUT HYPNOSIS

(i) I look at the upper part of the sternum or breast-bone (whether it is covered with clothes or not) and achieve a dominant note in my voice and say emphatically: "Rest, relax, let yourself go!. .. Close your eyes. . . rest on! . . . pay no attention to my words! . . . You will have no more difficulty, no more feeling of doubt, no more feeling of incompetence, no more nervousness . . ." etc. etc. etc.

(ii) If the patient stammers, I say: " I can assure you that you can talk perfectly, and, furthermore, that you will have absolute self-confidence. You will stammer no more, and will speak fluently, in fact, you will become an orator; you will have no more difficulty whatsoever, and will feel at perfect ease; you will no longer feel nervous, but will feel absolutely self-reliant and competent. You will always succeed," etc. To save repetition the reader is referred to the gramophone record section for suitable "auto-suggestion."

(See Appendix.)

(iii) This talk will occupy somewhere about five minutes; after which I say: " Keep your eyes closed, and just think of nothing." "Keep your eyes closed until I tell you to open them."

(iv) I now walk away and return in about ten minutes, and repeat (i), (ii) and (iii).

(v) I repeat (iv) (resting period), but only repeat afterwards (i) and (ii), telling the patient to return in three days' time (if not cured at the first visit).

Ten or twelve visits are often curative. In cases where the patient will listen to what I say, the above method will, of course, fail. It is essential that the patient does NOT listen to what I say, as by not listening, the words hold sway, in some way or other, with the unconscious mind, and not with the conscious. These people are usually extremely nervous persons. In these cases, I simply close their eyes for them with my fingers; SAY NOTHING; rest my hand upon their forehead, and stroke it gently and continue to do so for about seven minutes, at the same time holding one of the patient's hands. At the end of this "say nothing" consultation, I shake hands with the patient, but do not speak. If the patient is not cured, I let my secretary or someone in the household make the next appointment for me. What happens I do not quite know, but the sick become well; the worried become restful and carefree; hysterical paralytics, who have been brought in chair or ambulance, walk; hysterical aphonias (loss of voice) will, the next time (if not already cured), submit to the suggestion method with formula as stated under (i), (it), (iii), (iv) and (v).

Delboeuf explains Yogism and some practices of the so-called occult and Indian fakirs in this way.

We can hear the heart beating when we lie in bed at night, when all is quiet and our ordinary senses are cut off, and we can to some extent increase or decrease the beats at will, under these circumstances. We can think of our cold feet becoming warm, very warm in fact, and after several minutes of such concentrated thought, they actually do become warm. To further this point, a person by imagining that he has a certain disease (which he then has not), can in time so produce a disturbance of the vegetative phenomena, that he will not only suffer from that disease, but may actually die of it.

As regards AuTo-suGGEsTioN, Napoleon and also Coste de Lagrave were able to sleep at will, and awaken at a specified time. This was done by lying down, fixing their attention upon sleep, and on the idea that they would awaken after a certain number of minutes (the unconscious mind is a remarkably

Science of Hypnosis: methods of hypnotising accurate time-keeper).

They could produce dreams of the character they desired, and evoked sensory hallucinations and delusions to such an extent that they at times became greatly alarmed lest the condition thus induced might remain permanent.*

By auto-suggestion they could cure themselves of colic, gastrodynia, sciatica, and the like. This was done by closing their eyes and concentrating their thoughts on the organ they wished to affect. One quarter of an hour was the longest period required to completely remove such pain. This is the essence of faith-healing, psychic-healing, and the like, and the reader, by persistent and intense practice, can have the same powerful control over his body: the Orient has long known the value of this auto-mind-power-control in which many Yogis, fakirs and Buddhists are Past-masters.

THE CARL WICKLAND MODIFIED METHOD OF DE-POSSESSION AS USED BY THE AUTHOR

Dr. Carl Wickland of America has for many years used his wife as an excellent medium and placed the patient in an insulated chair. Then a Static current is switched on and the medium removes the entity from the patient. (Whether this theory of "possession" is believed in or not, matters not; the resulting cures are the telling factors.)

For some time the author has used this method, and was the first person to introduce it into England, only using a deep trance hypnotic subject or a very reliable trance medium, and at the same time playing a potent purple ray on to the eyes of the patient sitting on the insulated chair, so producing at least mild hypnosis in the patient and thereby facilitating the process of de-possession.

The detailed procedure is as follows:

(i) Sit the patient in an insulated chair.

(ii) Place the one pointer of the static machine within an inch of the solar plexus and the other within an inch of the nape of the neck.

(iii) Now set the Wimshurst machine working and close the spark-gaps between the Leyden jars.

(iv) A static current remains all over the patient. (This can be tested by nearly touching the patient at any part of the body, when a spark will pass between the patient and the operator.)

(v) The current is kept on for ten minutes.

(vi) Now switch off the current and place one pointer near to the glabella and the other pointer at the bottom of the spine, within an inch of the lower part of the sacrum:

(viii) Now switch off the current.

(ix) Place one pointer within an inch of the nape of the neck and leave the other near the sacrum (see (vi)).

(xi) At the end of this time place a somnambulist in deep trance and get him to hold the hands of the patient (at which moment a slight shock is felt by the patient) and then command the subject to "remove the possessing entity "; which he does, sometimes peacefully and sometimes with much struggling.

(xii) Switch off the current - give helpful suggestions to the somnambulic subject, after which you awaken him and send the patient home.

The patient is frequently cured the first time. If not, at the most, six such treatments suffice to cure the patient of his malady.

N.B. A large Wimshurst machine is driven by dynamo and discharges constantly into two Leyden jars which are allowed to constantly discharge, giving a ten-inch spark of about 220,000 volts (but no amperage).

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